The main aspects of sheep farming

Sheep breeding is needed in order to get high-quality wool, as well as delicious milk and meat. Sheep breeding in the world is in great demand, in Russia it has gained particular popularity, as our winters are particularly severe, and you can be saved from severe frost with the help of warm things from sheepskin.

Sheep breeding rules

At present, sheep breeding in Russia is developing rapidly, there is a logical explanation for this, because this livestock industry is flexible and does not require significant upfront costs. In addition, sheep does not need much space.

If you properly organize sheep husbandry at the very beginning, you can get a pretty profitable and profitable business. We will find out what are the peculiarities of sheep breeding in Russia, how to organize your business, whether it is profitable to breed sheep, and what is the profitability of sheep breeding at present. In general, we will touch on the foundations on which the global development of sheep breeding is based.

Features of sheep breeding in Russia

Sheep farming is a fairly common occupation in the world. If we consider the development of sheep husbandry by country, the undoubted leader in the industry is such a country, China.

As for the development of sheep husbandry in Russia, it can be dealt with in any corner of our country, starting from the most extreme northern point, ending with the south. Thus, sheep breeding in Russia is spread across all regions of the country. An obstacle can only be the fact that sheep do not tolerate dampness and high humidity, because in such conditions, sheep can get sick due to weakened immunity and a drop in disease resistance, which negatively affects sheep breeding.

Sheeps hardly tolerate dampness and high humidity

As mentioned earlier, for the normal operation of the farm (SEC) with breeding sheep, initial investments are not needed. As for the success of the business, the positive point is that sheep wool is in demand in the Russian Federation, just like sheep cheese and meat products. Sheep ripens quickly enough, as a result, already at 8 months the lamb can be put on meat - this will ensure quick profit.

We give statistics on the development of sheep husbandry by region of the Russian Federation in the table:

Regions in which sheep breeding is considered developedNumber of livestock at the beginning of 2017
Stage of development of sheep husbandry in Dagestan (leader in the development of this branch of farming, the region where sheep husbandry is developed to the maximum)about 5, 400 thousand sheep, which is approximately 21% of the total
The state of sheep husbandry in Kalmykiaabout 2500 thousand goals
The state of sheep husbandry in the Stavropol TerritoryApproximately 2, 300 thousand goals
Astrakhan region1600 thousand goals
Karachay-Cherkess RepublicAbout 1200 thousand goals

How to organize feeding

For the proper organization of goat breeding and sheep breeding in the household, it is important to correctly organize the feeding of pets. This will positively affect the health status of the breeding sheep in the economy, how quickly they will gain weight, and the quality of the wool. Ideally, a breeding sheep should be grazing for the maximum amount of time; fresh greens are ideal food for sheep.

Sheep feeding organization

Sheep can be grazed for more than half of the calendar year, about 170 days a year. However, feed from the pasture must be moved carefully, introducing it gradually, so as not to provoke digestive problems. In summer, any green area can be used as pasture, almost any grass will fit for sheep. However, in addition to herbal food, it is important to enrich the feed with vitamins and minerals: this will positively affect the health of sheep. The dosage of such preparations should be calculated strictly according to the instructions, as well as depending on the weight of the sheep or ram.

As for food in the winter, the main product will be oats and hay, where the sheep breeder should add premixes and fodder. The basis is the consumption rate of about 2-3 kg of selected hay, about 1 kg of straw, as well as feed grain of at least 700 g per 1 individual. In addition, do not forget about vitamins and minerals in the complex.

What should be the room for the sheep

Sheep and sheep do not need excessive space - you can save a lot on the area. At the same time, this does not mean that the sheep will be settled so densely that they will not be able to move normally. An overly tight fit will contribute to the development of many diseases, including scabies, various parasites and the early spread of other pathogens.

Sheep room

The sheep farmer must create such conditions in the room so that it is not damp and humid. It is also important to monitor cleanliness: as it becomes dirty, you need to clean the shepherd and completely change the flooring. Depending on how meticulously compliance with sanitary and hygienic rules is maintained, the quality of the coat will also change for the better. Also, during the construction of the premises, it must be taken into account that the walls of sheep farms or farms must be periodically washed, disinfected and bleached, while using limestone.

How to choose a breed of sheep

Of course, the success of sheep breeding will largely depend on the breed chosen. So, in Russia, Belarus and other countries of the former USSR, for breeding, sheep of the Romanovskaya breed, Edilbaevskaya, Texel, Gissar, Altai, Merin, Kuibyshevskaya and Tsigayskaya are most often purchased. Argali, Arkhar and Mouflon refer more to wild sheep, sheep breeding on them is rarely seen.

Sheep Breed Selection

The above breeds are in high demand, as they have excellent coat and give excellent tasty and tender meat, which is always in demand.

What diseases are characteristic for sheep

Like all living organisms, sheep are susceptible to disease, so the owner should carefully monitor the slightest changes in the health status of cattle. To understand that something is wrong with a sheep or a ram according to such signs:

  • passivity;
  • lack of appetite;
  • poor appearance;
  • dry mucous membranes;
  • gait disturbance, etc.

The owner must monitor the health of the sheep

Among the most common factors that cause painful conditions, it is customary to single out the following:

  • errors in nutrition;
  • viruses or infections;
  • Incorrect conditions.

An unhealthy sheep loves to eat its own coat. This suggests that the animal is lacking in the nutrition of certain substances and trace elements. If a large amount of wool enters the sheep’s stomach, it can lead to blockage of the esophagus by bezoars.

Little lambs often suffer from a disease such as dyspepsia. Usually it occurs in young animals due to the fact that the female carrying the offspring did not eat properly. The development of this ailment can be suspected by prolonged diarrhea and a general violation of consciousness. As a treatment, preventive hunger is used for 8-10 hours, then the animal is given saline in a volume of 200 ml every 3-5 hours.

How to trim a sheep

In order to sell sheep wool as expensive as possible, you need to learn how to trim it correctly. In general, there is a certain technology, which is not difficult to learn.

How often do you need to cut a sheep? It is necessary to make a haircut, depending on the breed, 1 or 2 times a year. As for young lambs, whose hair is not so coarse, they need to be trimmed strictly once a year in autumn, the breed does not play a role here.

You need to think about a haircut when the animal has accumulated a sufficient amount of fat in the hairline, then the haircut process is easier, and the hair is soft and pleasant to the touch. Also, for the convenience of trimming, it is recommended not to allow grazing on the eve of the procedure in contaminated areas, so that the litter does not remain on the wool. Before direct cutting, any foreign objects, such as burdocks or other plant debris, must be removed from the hairline.

Shearing

For haircuts, special machines are used or the procedure is performed using scissors, of course the first is considered the most convenient and fast way. Besides the fact that the machine saves your time, as a result of such a haircut it is possible to get a fleece with the longest hair.

The pet is unlikely to be delighted with what is happening, so the sheep must be immobilized. It is recommended to lay it on the surface, then tightly bandage 3 limbs. It is recommended to start a haircut from the head, then go down to the neck, stomach and groin area. Only after that it is necessary to proceed to cutting the sides and back, where the wool is the most. The machine should be carried out as close to the skin as possible, but at the same time move so as not to deliver pain to the animal.

Tips for beginner sheep farmers claim that wool obtained from the abdomen and legs is considered to be of less quality, so it must be stored separately from a high-quality fleece.

After the procedure is completed, it is necessary to dry the wool, and then carefully beat off to remove dust and other foreign elements. For the convenience of storage and transportation, the wool needs to be rolled into a roller, having previously collected uneven edges.

Sheep's milk

In addition to meat and wool, a breeding sheep provides milk, the useful properties of which have been known to mankind since ancient times. Among other things, it has a pleasant sweet taste. If we compare its composition with the most common cow's milk, then sheep’s milk several times exceeds it in all respects.

Sheep milk cannot be stored for a long time: it begins to sour already on the 4th day after milking.

Sheep milk is especially important for allergy sufferers - many refuse cow's milk in favor of sheep's milk. Judging by the reviews, sheep’s milk is more tasty and delicate in taste; the products made on its basis are also obtained.

All of these positive properties make the product indispensable in the dairy market, as a result, the sheep farmer has the opportunity to make good money on its sale.

How to slaughter a sheep

In addition to wool and milk, the sheep gives excellent meat after slaughter. In this procedure, it is important to comply with all sanitary and veterinary requirements, the main technologies and rules, the only way to get a truly high-quality product.

Experienced sheep farmers do not recommend feeding the sheep on the eve of slaughter. This is explained by the fact that when cutting carcasses, the contents of the intestines will significantly complicate the dismantling of meat, a lot of videos and photos have been taken about it. In addition, such a carcass is difficult to bleed, and undigested food can contaminate meat. There are no restrictions regarding water.

Direct slaughter of a sheep is carried out when the animal is hanged by its legs or placed on a bench. With a sharp movement of a hand, they pierce the neck of an individual with a knife near the auricle, then the main blood arteries located nearby are cut. The carcass must lie or sag in this state for at least 5-7 minutes, this is necessary in order for the blood to flow out.

How to kill a sheep

After this, you need to proceed to cutting off the head, ligation of the esophagus and further separation of the skin. This is done correctly, starting from the abdomen, where the first cut is made. After that, cuts are made on the limbs, it is with them that the process of separating the skin from meat begins. To do this, use special knives that minimize the risk of spoiling the skin. After separating the whole skin, it must be left alone for a while.

After 2 hours, you can begin to preserve the skins, while you need to decide in advance exactly how this will be done. Currently, the most common is the mixed type of conservation, or, as it is also called, wet-salted.

It is important to show the sheep to the veterinarian before slaughter: this will help to make sure that the animal is completely healthy and there will be no problems with selling its meat.

We make a business plan for sheep breeding

A successful business, like any production, should begin with a detailed business plan or project for raising sheep, in which everything will be thought out to the smallest detail. Usually, the most popular breed of sheep, Romanovskaya, is used for miscalculation. As for the premises, this is not the most expensive article, since sheep do not require a lot of space. The place for grazing should be large, because one sheep needs at least 1 ha on average.

The next item of expenditure is the salary of farm or farm workers. Any work must be paid. Based on 300 goals, you will need one veterinarian, one person who will milk the sheep, as well as a shepherd. Next, you need to take care of the points of sale of products, and immediately you need to think about meat and wool.

Here is an example of calculating a business plan for raising sheep, in which the farm, consisting of 300 heads, is taken as an example:

  • Lease of land for construction - about 50 thousand rubles. in year.
  • The construction of a winter shepherd to house animals, taking into account all the necessary equipment, is about 80 thousand rubles.
  • Salaries to employees - 500 thousand rubles. in year.
  • Feed purchase per year at cost - 120 thousand rubles.
  • Force majeure expenses - 140 thousand rubles.

In total, about 900 thousand rubles are obtained, which must be invested initially, and this without taking into account the cost of the animal itself.

As for the income that the sheep farmer receives, the profit will be in the following articles:

  • Meat production - about 500 thousand rubles. for a hundred goals.
  • Sale in live weight - about 600 thousand rubles. for a hundred sheep.
  • Production and sale of wool - about 120 thousand rubles.

In total, profit comes from sheep farming and properly organized production of about 1.22 million rubles. Thus, a beginner sheep farmer can clearly see how quickly all costs are paid back.

In conclusion, we can say that sheep and goat husbandry are a profitable and profitable business that can be practiced all year round.

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