Known methods for inseminating cows, their advantages and disadvantages
Many farmers are thinking about how to improve livestock productivity without acquiring an additional number of individuals. There is a solution - insemination of cows, which makes it easy to vary the number of livestock. What methods of fertilization exist? What is their fundamental difference from each other? What to choose: a natural or artificial approach? You will find answers to these questions in the presented review.
Insemination of cows
How to identify sexual hunting in cows
Scientists have proven that the cow belongs to polycyclic mammals, which means that it can produce offspring all year round. The cycle time in the animals in question is approximately 3 weeks and has the following stages:
- arousal (this includes estrus, sexual hunting and ovulation);
- inhibition (behavioral signs fixed by a look: restoration of appetite, neutral reaction to a bull);
- balancing (standard condition of the animal).
As for estrus, it is not difficult to recognize it, because mucus begins to stand out from the genital passages, which darkens at the end of the cycle, the swelling of the external genitalia. This occurs under the influence of an increase in the amount of estrogen in the blood, caused by the maturation of follicles. This period can also be determined by the behavior of cows. The animal loses its appetite, becomes restless, begins to move more actively. On average, estrus lasts only 30 hours, although cases of extension of this phase for 5-6 days were noticeable.
As for sexual hunting, this phase is distinguished as the most important for insemination (whether natural or artificial). This period begins approximately 25 hours after the estrus is opened and lasts a little more than a day. Why is this time important? Because it is here that the compliance of the cows with the manipulations is observed (bull attack, human introduction of the seed into the genital passages). It is during this period that the egg leaves the ovary (the beginning of ovulation), therefore it is considered the most optimal time for insemination of cows.
If the sperm were not delivered to the egg, then it dies, is excreted, the estrogen content drops, the appetite is restored, in other words, the inhibition phase begins, which is replaced by balancing (lasts 20-25 days before a new estrus).
The best time to inseminate cows
How to determine when to inseminate cows? The most optimal time is the phase of sexual hunting (several days), when the heifer has secretions and it begins to lick the genitals, laying its head on the back of other individuals.
It is important to know that only a sexually mature individual aged 8-10 months is ready for mating.
The normalization of the cycle in heifers occurs only towards the end of the second year of life, therefore, it will be correct to use the senior representatives of the livestock (this will simplify the choice of time for insemination, get healthy offspring, and save life for their cows).
If the proposed information did not help to answer the question of when to inseminate a cow, the table below shows clearly the best time to select a procedure.
|Estrus phases||Duration, hours||Artificial insemination||Natural insemination|
|Initial||8||Useless||Ideal after 6 hours from the beginning of estrus|
|Active||16||Ideally||Ideal in the first half of the phase|
|Out of estrus||8||Useless||Useless|
This table allows you to help choose the most optimal time for any type of cattle fertilization.
Types and rules of insemination
How to inseminate a cow? Currently, the following methods exist:
- natural (animal sexual instinct);
- artificial (introduction of sperm using special tools).
There is no point in talking about such a method of insemination of cows as natural, where the bull plays an important role, but it is worth stopping at the latter, especially since it can be produced in different ways (by rectocervical, manocervical and visocervical methods). What are these variations and what is their difference? Which method is more humane? When is fertilization more effective and less likely to become infected? Perhaps these are the key issues that concern farmers who have decided to inseminate the cow artificially.
Important: the procedure should be performed by a person with an appropriate medical education, who knows not only the structure of the animal, but also the rules for insemination of cows.
Here are some of them:
- The procedure for artificial insemination of eggs in cattle (cattle) occurs only in special places. The room should be equipped with a washing, laboratory and paddock with clamps. Compliance with this rule will eliminate the risk of injury and infection due to sterilization of equipment and clothes in the washing room, and the laboratory stores all the necessary equipment and seminal fluid.
- If the insemination of cows is planned to be carried out on a farm, it is necessary to first sanitize the room and clean the animal itself with mild solutions (furatsilin diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 1).
- Before the procedure, you need to find out about the age of the cow and choose the appropriate insemination option.
- It is imperative to conduct a preliminary examination of the cervix for normal functioning.
- Work takes place in special gloves lubricated with petroleum jelly.
- You need to know how to prepare a cow for artificial insemination: before the introduction of sperm, it is important to clean its anus from the remains of manure, disinfect it and labia and massage the uterus (increase its tone).
- All manipulations are carried out gently, carefully so as not to harm the animal.
- No need to rush to put a catheter, you should wait for vaginal cramps.
- You can not remove the catheter immediately after the introduction of seminal fluid (this can be done only after palpation of the suction spasm).
There are several ways to understand that a cow has become pregnant: monitor its behavior (stopping hunting, mucus has disappeared) and donate blood to prolactin 15 days after insemination.
Tip: start keeping a discharge calendar to always know when you can seed a cow according to preliminary data. This will allow you to prepare for the procedure in advance (release several days in order to freely observe the animal with estrus).
If spotting has appeared, you should immediately call a veterinarian and examine the animal (this can be either a sign of pregnancy or a manifestation of trauma to the genital organs).
Features of the manocervical insemination method
The manocervical method can only be carried out by a competent specialist who knows the structural features of cattle (for him there is no concept of the multiplicity of insemination of a cow). How is the procedure:
- Before insemination of cows begins, it is necessary to disinfect the vulva (you can use a weak solution of furatsilina or potassium permanganate).
- Check for signs of ovulation (estrus is present, mucus is clear).
- Determine the opening of the cervix (a hand covered with a glove with petroleum jelly is inserted into the vagina).
- Massage the cervix for 2 minutes.
- Place a pre-prepared catheter and sperm vial in the other hand.
- Carefully insert the second hand into the vagina, and the catheter into the cervical canal by 1.5-2 cm.
- Attach the ampoule to the catheter.
- Squeeze out the contents of the ampoule with a relaxed cervix (this is the period when the hollow organ draws in seminal fluid).
- Remove the used tools from the vagina, while massaging the cervix.
Important: if an animal at any age is uncomfortable or painful, the cervix will contract and the sperm will spill out, therefore, insemination of the cow may not occur.
Seeding cows in this way can be done repeatedly - the ideal option would be to repeat the procedure after 12 hours. It is not necessary to carry out 3-4 procedures of artificial insemination of cattle in a row, because in this way it is possible to provoke the process of antibody formation and the development of infertility in animals. Based on this, it is necessary to indicate how many times it is acceptable to inseminate animals in order to obtain high efficiency - 2 times.
It is worth noting that the manocervical method is not chosen by veterinarians if there is a young cow in front of them, which has never been subjected to insemination. The thing is that the heifer has a rather narrow lumen of the vagina, and by its action the insemination will only harm the animal. It is better to leave such a method for cattle that already gave offspring (that is, is over the age of 2 years).
Visocervical insemination method
This method is carried out using a vaginal mirror, a special syringe-catheter and involves a full examination of the cervix.
- In laboratory conditions, prepare special solutions that allow for thorough sterilization of instruments and animals.
- Check for signs of ovulation (whether mucus is visible on the genitals, genital hunting).
- Before the procedure, be sure to clean the vulva of the cow with a weak solution of furatsilin, and treat the mirror, burn it (it is better to burn a swab dipped in alcohol, and then use a salt composition).
- Then insert the mirror into the vagina and open it so that it is possible to examine the cervical canal.
- Collect sperm into the syringe (be sure to remove the formed air bubbles).
- Place the catheter into the cervical canal to a depth of 4-5 cm.
- The contents of the syringe are slowly inserted into the uterus through a catheter. When the fluid goes through the catheter, the mirror is covered.
- Remove the catheter and mirror from the vagina, massage the cervix. After this moment, expect pregnancy.
Important: with this method of insemination of cows, you need to remove the mirror by opening it slightly to avoid damage to the delicate mucous membrane of the vagina.
The advantages of this method:
- Ease of execution.
- High efficiency (non-inseminated cows make up only 1%).
If spotting of a cow appears after insemination or is white or purulent, you must immediately call a veterinarian and examine the animal for infection. Perhaps the cause of inflammation was a violation of sterility.
Features of the execution of the rectocervical method
The name of this method stands for insemination of blood through the rectum ("recto" - behind). The tools for its implementation are in individual packages (already sterile), but it is better to subject them to processing again, because you cannot be 100% sure of the integrity of the package.
- It will be better if the animal undergoes a preliminary examination for the presence of infections in the body (you need to make sure that the breed is not sick).
- Make sure that the cow is at the right stage (check for signs of ovulation).
- It is important to prepare a syringe (fill with sperm and make sure that the seminal fluid is free of bubbles).
- It is necessary to cleanse the rectum and treat it with a solution of furatsilina not only her, but also the labia.
- In the rectum, you need to enter the hand of the seeder (always with a glove).
- To feel the uterus, or rather, the cervix (resembles a ribbed cylinder).
- With the other hand, insert the syringe with sperm and a catheter into the vagina and advance gently to get into the cervical canal.
Important: to control the process of penetration of the instrument into the right place and not to prick the bladder, you need to work with the thumb of the hand located in the rectum of cattle.
- Push the catheter to a depth of 6 cm into the cervix and squeeze the contents into the uterine cavity (key period of the procedure).
- Remove tools and perform a short massage of the cervix.
- Rinse the external genitalia and rectum with an antiseptic solution and from this moment expect calving.
Rectocervical method of insemination of cows is used in villages all the time, even despite a large number of shortcomings, among which low efficiency. The thing is that not every specialist is able to correctly find the cervix by touch, and even more so to fix it. Plus, inexperienced inseminators can damage the mucous membrane of the genitals and provoke blood discharge.
Do not forget that with such a campaign, the likelihood of developing infectious diseases is high, because with poor-quality cleaning of the rectum, the remains of feces can get on the vaginal mucosa.
When deciding on insemination of a cow, one should try to choose a competent specialist who is able not only to carry out the procedure qualitatively, but also to choose the most optimal and most sparing option for the cow (mainly manocervical). It is important not to forget to follow the rules of the procedure to ensure the birth of healthy offspring and save the life of cattle.