Juniper in Siberia: what varieties can be grown
The evergreen plant of the Cypress family - juniper, has many bright varieties, some of them have good winter hardiness and disease resistance, therefore they are suitable for planting in regions with a harsh climate. Many are interested in whether it is possible to grow this culture in Siberia, and what kind of care will it need? Consider all the nuances.
Juniper in Siberia: what varieties can be grown
a brief description of
- Color : from light green to emerald with a bluish or bluish tint.
- Height : varies from 1.5 m to 30 m.
- Diameter of crown : from 1 to 8 m.
- Growing regions : in spite of changeable weather, prolonged severe winters and frosts, many gardeners manage to grow beautiful and lush conifers in Siberia. Several varieties are adapted for this climate zone. They are also suitable for the south, central and middle lane.
- Landing features : scheme - 2x2.5 m, you need to provide a sunny place with easy shading.
- Immunity : good disease resistance.
- Life expectancy : 200 to 800 years.
Despite the changing weather, prolonged severe winters and frosts, many gardeners manage to grow beautiful and lush conifers in Siberia.
Several varieties are adapted for this climate zone. They are also suitable for cultivation in the south, in the Central and Middle lane.
Dioecious creeping plant, the description of which includes the following characteristics:
- height is up to 1, 5 m;
- breadth quickly grows and forms a thick carpet of emerald needles;
- needles are soft, erect, pointed, bluish-green in color, 4-6 mm long;
- forms beautiful cone berries, 5-7 mm in size, blackish-brown with a bluish bloom, rounded oval.
Sometimes the conifer develops in the form of a tree up to 4 m high with a curved trunk of a red-brown hue.
One of the brightest varieties. The common Siberian juniper is represented by a monoecious or dioecious plant up to 1 m high. The crown is dense with numerous open branches creeping on the ground.
Annual growth is 0.5 cm, by 10 years reaches 0.5 m. Young branches of light green color, glossy, skeletal shoots of gray-brown tone.
It forms a massive root system, which goes 1.5 m deep. The needles are awl-shaped, curved and prickly, green, and retains its decorative effect for two years, including in winter.
Cones 6-8 mm long, spherical, fleshy, black in color with a bluish bloom.
Oversized tree with a pyramidal crown, 10-12 m high, about 0.5 m in diameter. Needles develop in bunches of 3 pieces each, awl-shaped, prickly, up to 30 mm long, emerald in color. Closer to winter, the needles acquire a brown color.
Forms resinous cone berries with a grayish coating.
In nature, this variety can be found on rocky slopes, cliffs, less often on sandy land off the coast.
Long-lived plant - a life span of 800 years. Belongs to drought-resistant and frost-resistant varieties. Height varies from 20 to 25 m.
This culture is represented by dioecious trees or shrubs with a pyramidal, columnar, narrow or wide-conical shape.
The description includes several distinctive qualities:
- shoots of medium thickness - 2-2.5 cm, dark green;
- the trunk is covered with gray-red bark with numerous delamination;
- needles, depending on the variety, are of two types - scaly or needle-shaped;
- cone berries - round, elongated or angular in shape;
- young plants do not differ in intensive development, starting from 4-5 years, the growth rate is accelerated.
Photophilous plant native to the USA, Canada, reaches 30 m in height and belongs to centenarians - the life expectancy is 300 years.
An evergreen conifer with an ovoid, narrow crown, with a diameter of about 1.5 m, in adulthood acquires a columnar shape. Needles needles or scaly, 1-2 mm long, bluish-green, closer to winter becomes brown.
Decorative cones of dark blue color, in the form of balls, appear in the second year of cultivation, are stored on the tree until the first frost. The root system is rod, has a small branching.
The plant lives for about 600 years, has an open crown with thick shoots and stiff needles.
The needles of a two-tone tone are bluish-gray above, dark green below. This culture thins a rich aroma.
The scaly variety does not have rapid growth - by 6-7 years, its height reaches 1.5 m. The next year after planting, oval shaped cones are formed on the crown, up to 7 cm long.
Evergreen coniferous shrub, reaching 1-3 m in height, with yellowish trihedral shoots. On the central trunk, a bark of a dark gray hue with numerous cracks and scales.
The needles are long (4-16 mm), prickly, pointed at the tips, emerald.
The first cones are formed in the second or third year. This is one of the few varieties that can be successfully propagated by seeds.
Juniper is not demanding to care for and has high resistance to severe frosts, therefore it is suitable for planting in Western and Eastern Siberia, in the Caucasus, Ukraine and Belarus.
The tree grows beautiful and fluffy
To grow a beautiful conifer in a harsh climatic zone, you should choose healthy and high-quality material for planting, choose a good place, and give the plant the necessary care and attention.
Almost all juniper seedlings have a delicate and fragile root system, so gardeners recommend buying plants with closed roots - in an earthen coma or container.
So, during a transplant, the risk of injury and drying out of the roots is minimal.
Choosing conifers, inspect their aboveground and underground parts:
- the crown should be vibrant, saturated, uniform in color without any stains, shrunken organs and rot;
- in healthy bushes, the earthen lump does not contain mold, acidity;
- buds are green, shoots are flexible and juicy.
The optimal time for landing is the end of April or the beginning of May. During the summer, plants will have time to take root, grow stronger and prepare for wintering.
Regardless of the variety selected, the culture likes to grow in a sunny place with little shading. It can be planted near tall trees with a spreading crown, which will create the necessary shadow in the sun.
The plot is suitable flat, where there is no stagnation of moisture and strong winds.
Juniper grows on any soil, the main thing is to provide good drainage.
- When planting on loams, a pair of buckets of sand, vermiculite or screenings per 1 m² are introduced.
- If you plan to grow on sandy loams, you need to add 20 kg of clay.
The tree does not tolerate acidified soil, it develops slowly in it and looks faded, so if the acidity level exceeds 5-6 units, 350 g of calcite, slaked lime or dolomite flour should be added.
After this, deep digging and leveling are carried out.
Pits are excavated about two weeks before planting so that the soil and nutrients can settle. Approximate dimensions - 70x80x90 cm. The main thing is that the drainage, earth mixture and the entire earthen lump fit in the hole.
Half a bucket of crushed stone, pebble or brick chips is poured at the bottom. The top half is filled with a fertile composition of turf land, peat, sand and coniferous sawdust in a ratio of 3: 2: 1: 1.
Pre-moistened lump with roots is lowered so that the root neck remains above the soil surface, sprinkled, tamped, watered abundantly - at the rate of 10 l per seedling.
After that, mulch with a thick layer of peat or pine chips to avoid the rapid evaporation of moisture.
Junipers require proper care
Basic care for Siberian junipers is practically no different from the rules for growing in other climatic zones.
At the initial stage of growth, seedlings need frequent and moderate hydration.
In the drought season, under one bush, it is necessary to pour 6-7 liters of water every seven days. So the plants take root faster, and begin to build up green mass.
Next year, watering is reduced to 4 times per year. Under one seedling, pour 10-15 liters of water.
Adult junipers, from the age of 3 years, moisturize no more than three times - in the spring, in the middle of summer and in the fall a month before the onset of cold weather. Consumption per plant - 40-50 liters.
The coniferous crop responds well to frequent sprinkling of crowns - it is sprayed once every three days in the evening to prevent the appearance of burns.
Loosening and mulching
After each watering, the soil is loosened to provide good access of moisture and oxygen to the roots. Loosening is carried out superficially so as not to damage the root system. At the same time weed aisles and remove weeds.
Then make a thick layer of mulch in the near-trunk zone of peat, pine wood chips or sawdust. These components protect the soil from drying out and prevent the growth of unnecessary vegetation in the garden.
Juniper grows well and practically does not get sick, which is periodically fertilized.
The first meal is carried out a year after planting - a liquid solution of nitrogen-containing preparations - nitrophoski or ammofoski - is introduced. Prepared from 30-40 g of substance per 10 liters of water.
Such top dressing contributes to the intensive growth of roots and green mass.
Additionally, in early autumn, you can nourish with a complex mineral composition of superphosphate and potassium - 15 g per bucket of water.
To maintain the decorativeness of the crown and protect against the invasion of various parasites, foliar nutrition is carried out with chelated preparations — Quadris, Epin, or Heteroauxin. Irrigate three times a season in the evening.
Almost all varieties of junipers do not need a haircut, because initially they form a beautiful and compact crown.
But to create different original forms, a slight cut of shoots to a length of 3-4 cm is allowed.
Every spring, all parts damaged by frost, wind and disease are removed.
To prevent infection, they take a sharp sterile object, and after surgery, the cut-off places are treated with fungicides - Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate.
Basic care for young bushes includes thorough preparation for wintering, which is carried out on the eve of the first frosts:
- mulch with a thick layer of pine chips, sawdust or peat;
- twigs are bent to the central trunk, tied with a rope or twine;
- wrapped in burlap or covered with spruce branches.
Shelter is removed in the spring when street heat is stabilized, snow will come off and the threat of return frosts will pass.
Adult plants from the age of three years do not need warming, because they have good immunity against severe and prolonged frosts.
The only thing that needs to be done is to spud the near-trunk zone with any insulating material.
Growing in different regions
There are two ways to propagate this culture in Siberia - by seeds and cuttings. Each method has advantages and disadvantages.
For sowing, both hand-picked and purchased seeds are suitable. Dates - mid or end of May.
A loose and light mixture of sand with peat is used, mixed in equal amounts.
- Expanded clay or pebbles are laid at the bottom of the container, after which they are filled with soil substrate.
- Seeds are soaked in a raspberry solution of potassium permanganate for half an hour, then dipped in a solution of Epin or Kornevin for an hour.
- Sow in grooves to a depth of 2-2.5 cm. Irrigate with warm water, cover with a film, put in a warm place with scattered daylight.
Further care is to maintain stable heat at a level of 20-23 ° C, regular ventilation and irrigation as the earth dries.
After 2-3 months, shoots should appear. Then the shelter is removed, the seeds are transferred to a room with a temperature of 17-19 ° C, continue to water. 30 days after the appearance of the sprouts, a pick is carried out.
Transplanted to the site after a year and a half of cultivation at home. During this time, they will grow a strong root system and green mass.
Cut the shoots from the apical part of the mother bush. To do this, use a healthy plant from the age of 3-4 years.
Twigs 15 cm long with several internodes are freed from needles and growths below, sprayed with a solution of Epin or Heteroauxin, then planted in a light mixture of peat and sand (1: 1). Planting depth 3-4 cm.
Water, cover with a film, put in a well-lit place.
During rooting (2-3 months), seedlings should be regularly ventilated, irrigated with warm water, loosen and, if necessary, remove weeds.
As soon as the first kidneys appear on them, the shelter is removed, the conifers are transferred to a room with a temperature of 18-19 ° C, they continue to moisturize and loosen. They can be transplanted to the site in 1-1.5 years, after home cultivation.
Diseases and Pests
With good care, this plant is rarely affected by diseases and pests. Phytoncides, which produces needles, scare away harmful insects.
Sometimes a fungal disease called rust appears. Spots in the form of growths of red or orange color cover the trunk, adjacent shoots.
The infection spreads rapidly and quickly destroys the plant - needles, branches turn yellow, crumble. First, the damaged parts are removed, then the crown is irrigated with Ridomil Gold, Tilt or a solution of copper sulfate twice with an interval of 7 days.
Shrinking of shoots is another dangerous sore that turns a beautiful conifer into a heated broom.
At the early stage of the disease, it is necessary to remove and burn all infected organs, after which the soil and conifer should be treated with copper sulfate, Bordeaux fluid or a chemical agent - Skor, Ridomil Gold.
Of the parasites, the spider mite annoys. In the fight use acaricides - Actellik or Actaru. Decis helps from the scale.
You can get rid of aphids by several folk methods - infusion of garlic, onions, hot pepper or tobacco, as well as an ash-soap solution.
Application in garden design
In Siberia, junipers are very popular in landscape design:
- from them create a beautiful, evergreen green hedge;
- planted both singly and in groups along alleys, borders;
- combine with different conifers - thuja, pine;
- used in the creation of original rock gardens, mixborders, gardens in the Japanese, Scandinavian style, planted on rocky slides.
Juniper needles are valued for their unique healing properties and are readily used in both folk and traditional medicine:
- plant-based preparations have a diuretic, bactericidal and disinfecting effect, therefore they are used in the treatment of pathologies of the bladder, kidneys, bronchitis, cough and diseases of the respiratory system;
- a medicine from berries and needles helps to cleanse the blood, it is indicated for the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis;
- due to the increased content of organic acids, ascorbic acid and amino acids, the therapeutic agent enhances immunity, improves the digestive tract and normalizes blood pressure.
This culture has earned only positive ratings:
- the plant retains decorativeness all year long, practically does not get sick, does not freeze and perfectly cleans the air;
- successful propagation by seeds or cuttings makes it possible to independently obtain a large number of new seedlings;
- for beginners, I liked the undemanding care - there is no need for a shaping haircut, and shelter for adult specimens is also not required.
Many grow Siberian juniper to decorate their site. According to gardeners, he brings only joy, no troubles arise with him.