Japanese cabbage Mizuna
Green mustard, Japanese green salad, or Japanese mizuna cabbage is one of two varieties of Japanese cruciferous culture. This unusually tasty and healthy plant is also called a culture for the lazy, because the mizuna does not need painstaking care and you can grow it even on the windowsill.
Japanese cabbage Mizuna
Japanese salad cabbage is notable for its unpretentiousness and frost resistance (it can withstand up to -2-3 ° C).
Mizuna has unusual characteristics:
- precocious culture, for complete suitability in food it takes only about one and a half to two months;
- seeds are very small, grayish-black;
- does not head out and belongs to subspecies of kale;
- depending on the variety, the color of the leaves varies from bright green to reddish brown;
- the plant blooms in small light yellow flowers;
- It has an unusual spicy taste, soft-spicy, sometimes tart (contains less mustard oils than analogues);
- forms an edible root crop (about 10-15cm), taste like rutabaga;
- due to the unusual lace leaves, the culture is often used as a decor for parks and gardens.
To date, two varieties of Japanese cabbage have been introduced into the State Register of the Russian Federation - Gavrish (Little Mermaid) and SeDek (Dude).
Gavrish (The Little Mermaid) is a mid-season variety that has received its name due to the unusual shape of the leaves. Culture is characterized by such distinctive features:
- adult plant height - 35-40cm;
- the leaves are green, cirrus, lyre-shaped, with serrated edges;
- petiole is white;
- low elongation or horizontal outlet;
- on average contains 50-60 sheets;
- diameter of the foliage bunch - up to 70cm;
- from the first seedlings of this variety of Japanese cabbage to the time of harvesting, 50-60 days pass;
- the weight of one plant is 1.2-1.7 kg;
- tolerates rising and lowering temperatures;
- the variety is resistant to flowering;
- suitable for growing in greenhouses and in open areas from early spring to late autumn;
- It has a universal purpose, is used in fresh, salted and pickled form.
Sedek (Dude) - an early variety. It takes only a month to get the crop. Culture Features:
- horizontal outlet;
- sheets have a strong dissection;
- the weight of one plant is 300-500 g;
- adapted for growing in open and protected ground;
- after cutting leaves, very quickly grows new ones;
- has a salad purpose.
Cabbage is good in salads
In addition to these varieties, there are also such options on sale: Mizuna Green (with characteristic openwork foliage, ideal for decoration) and Mizuna Red (green foliage with anthocyanin).
Light soils with good drainage and high organic content will be ideal for its cultivation. But even on poor soil with an average level of air and moisture capacity, the plant will show a good result.
When planting a crop, you must always remember about crop rotation: to get a good level of productivity, you cannot plant seeds or seedlings of green mustard after other varieties of cabbage. It is better to use the beds after growing legumes, peppers, beets or tomatoes.
To properly plant Japanese lettuce seeds, you must adhere to the following rules:
- planting can be carried out both by seedling method, and sowing seeds into the ground;
- optimal landing time - April-May;
- to obtain a continuous series of seedlings, it is necessary to sow the seeds of Japanese cabbage from April (when the soil temperature is at least 10 °) until the end of August with an interval of 2 weeks;
- seeds are planted in rows, the gap between them should not exceed 20-30 cm;
- optimal temperature for sowing seeds 15 20 ° С;
- under favorable conditions, the first sprouts germinate a week after planting;
- in open ground conditions, the first sprouts need to be covered with a film or thin non-woven material (up to emergence);
- after germination of seedlings, thinning is necessary;
- selective cutting of greenery is carried out when the leaves reach 10cm (if you leave the root - the greenery will grow back);
- mature rosettes are cut off completely, keeping the root in the soil.
The care that Japanese cabbage requires is similar to that of Beijing cabbage.
All varieties of such cabbage are moisture-loving, but it is absolutely impossible to over-moisten them. Excess moisture reduces productivity and can lead to rotting of the root system. It is necessary to water both the roots and the ground between the seedlings.
Regular weeding is mandatory, as weeds can be a source of insect pests. Mulching the soil will help reduce the number of weeds. The distance between plants for full growth should be at least 20 cm.
To increase green mass and quickly recover from a cut of greens, fertilizers must be applied every 2 weeks. Japanese cabbage is fed mainly by phosphorus and potassium. Like Petsai, culture tends to accumulate nitrates. Therefore, the application of nitrogen fertilizers should be minimal.
An ideal top dressing for green mustard is wood ash (used in dry pollination and as a component of infusion for the root system). Japanese kale is a short-day crop and needs shading in the afternoon (otherwise arrows may form).
Pests can attack cabbage
Kale is susceptible to pests such as:
- cabbage aphids
- cruciferous fleas,
Chemicals are not used in the cultivation of Japanese cabbage, so folk recipes are used. The most popular remedies are herbal decoctions, tobacco dust, wood ash. There are special traps against the bear.
An important preventive method is the periodic inspection of seedlings to timely start the fight in case of damage to the culture.
This vegetable is resistant to most diseases, but still it is susceptible to fungal diseases:
- false dew.
The fungal form of the disease mainly affects ornamental and vegetable crops. The disease is expressed in the appearance of growths on the roots of the plant. The affected culture stops growing, the leaves lose their color, the stem begins to dry out and deform. You can determine the presence of the disease by pulling it out of the ground and examining the roots.
To prevent the development of this disease, you need to inspect the plants before planting, weakened or deformed sprouts should be abandoned immediately. Also to prevent the disease will help liming the soil. Before planting, you need to mix the soil with lime, with the calculation of 1 kg per 4 sq.m.
False dew also belongs to fungal diseases. It is expressed in the appearance of yellow-brown spots on the first full leaves of the vegetable.
- watering with warm water;
- crop rotation;
- tillage before planting, 200 gr. 1% Bordeaux fluid per 10 liters. water, use the mixture as a liquid for irrigation 24 hours before planting.
Ripe Japanese cabbage Mizuna is an unpretentious vegetable crop with an unusual spicy taste and beautiful appearance. Its leaves have a universal purpose, from the preparation of vitamin salads, soups and use in marinades, to the decorative decoration of gardens and parks.