How to transplant eggplant seedlings
Spring work in the country includes the mandatory germination of seedlings of vegetables and their subsequent planting in the ground. For some garden crops, this is becoming a serious test. To properly transplant eggplant, you must adhere to the rules of agricultural technology.
Transplanting eggplant seedlings
Eggplant is a common culture in the south. For a more severe climate, the features of its growth and fruit ripening do not always end in a generous harvest. In regions with moderate weather conditions, early ripening varieties are selected, the vegetation period of which is 100-120 days, while middle and late varieties require a lot of time and mature in 130-150 days.
There are reasons that complicate the process of growing vegetables:
- The optimum temperature for growing eggplant shoots is 18 ° C. For most cultivated plants, it does not exceed 12 ° C.
- Temperature readings are also important for seed germination. Eggplants do not like temperature changes; they prefer warm days and nights. For this, it is important to maintain a regime of 18-26 ° C. Reducing heat to 13 ° C causes the shoots to drop leaves, flowers and ovaries. Frosts can immediately ruin a plant.
The most acceptable place for growing eggplant is considered a greenhouse. The use of temporary film coatings also has a good effect on the crop. Positive results are also observed when large areas covered by agrofibre are used.
Plants develop well in places open to the sun and air, do not tolerate shaded areas, so they should not be planted next to other tall plants, hedges or fences.
Gardeners rely on the sowing calendar to select the most favorable days for planting vegetables. In the case of eggplant, they focus on the choice of seed. For sowing, 2-3-year-old seeds are considered an ideal option: they have more chances for germination and shorter periods compared to last year.
To germinate the selected seeds, use cotton swabs or discs that are moistened with warm melt or rain water. Gauze tissues can damage delicate sprouts and roots, therefore it is better to refuse their use. Wetted cotton buds every day for 5-6 days make the seeds swell and release roots.
An important step is the disinfection of germinated seeds. There are 2 main ways:
- Using 3 ml of hydrogen peroxide, which is added per 100 ml of water. The liquid is adjusted to 40 ° C. In it for 10 minutes. soak the seeds immediately before sowing. Sometimes peroxide is replaced with potassium permanganate.
- For several hours, the seed is placed to germinate in hot, but not brought to a boil, water. Such an action in the future will help seedlings to resist disease.
Seedlings are immediately placed in separate containers. So, when transplanting, the roots are less damaged. The most convenient are peat cups. 70% of their composition is peat, and 30% is cardboard, which decomposes well in the soil over 30 days without harming it. Such pots have the main advantage: there is no need to plant plants from them, just put them together with a glass in the hole.
Soil for planting seeds should include components that are compatible with each other, including compost, sand, peat, purchased land for seedlings, turf, manure. Any composition should occupy 2/3 of the container in which the seeds will be placed, then it is watered with warm water.
1-2 cups to a depth of several centimeters are placed in cups or pots, lightly sprinkled with earth and watered again. Soil compaction during sowing is not required, because eggplant needs good soil aeration. The containers are covered with glass or polyethylene, placed in a warm bright place with an air temperature of 25-26 ° C.
The cover is removed when half the seedlings are visible. If this is not done, excessive humidity and heat will spoil the seedlings. Within 2 weeks after planting, all seeds placed in cups and pots should germinate. Among the 2 sprouted seedlings, choose the one that is stronger, the second is carefully removed from the tank.
Organization of eggplant transplant
For landing, you should choose a sunny area
Dive seedlings begin in accordance with weather conditions, when stable heat comes without sudden changes. The end of May – beginning of June is suitable for this. It is important not to delay the process so that seedlings do not outgrow the containers.
The ground under the seedlings is watered with plenty of water a few hours before a dive: this will facilitate the task of transferring them to a new place.
Transplanting eggplant seedlings at the preparatory stage also includes their hardening in advance. Seedlings are taken out to fresh air from the leeward sunny side, left for some time. Gradually increase the amplitude of such walks from 10 minutes. up to 2-3 hours.
An important step is the preparation of soil for planting eggplant. Planning of beds in the open air begins in the fall, while preparing a place for a greenhouse - no later than 3 weeks before the dive.
Transplanting plants makes sense in areas with some features:
- solar, protected from wind and draft;
- on a hill or level;
- with fertile and light soil;
- where in the previous year, greens, beans, potatoes, peas, carrots or beets were grown.
Loamy soil, which can maintain a high level of moisture at the roots, is considered the best for eggplant transplantation. Not all soils have such properties, but improvised means can correct the situation by adding individual missing components.
To increase the amount of moisture in the soil using rotted manure, sawdust and peat with the calculation of adding 2 buckets per 1 sq. Km. m. The dense structure of alumina is loosened with coarse river sand, mature compost, or half-rotted sawdust. The presence of a large amount of sand in the soil is balanced by the addition of peat, sawdust and compost, and the dominance of the peat base is replaced by turf soil and compost.
Balanced soil complement fertilizers. For these purposes, wood ash, urea, potassium sulfate and superphosphate are used. The required amount of substances is added to the soil, after which they must dig up a site with a violation of the upper layer to a depth of 30 cm. In the spring after rain, they again dig up the area under the eggplants, removing weeds, excess roots and garbage.
Planting seedlings in the ground
In late May or early summer, seedlings of domestic eggplant are transplanted into the ground. To do this, specially prepared beds. High ridges are poured up to 30-45 cm with a row spacing of at least 90-100 cm. In this case, per 1 square. m accounts for no more than 3 plants. They are placed in a checkerboard pattern: this facilitates care, and also allows the penetration of sun and fresh air to them.
Ideally, it becomes possible to transplant eggplant on 50-70 days after emergence. Seedlings at that time should reach 30-35 cm in height, have from 7 to 10 leaves on the stem. Strong seedlings that are able to adapt to new living conditions are chosen.
To deepen the holes for seedlings is no less than 15-20 cm. 1-3 liters of warm water are poured into each. Plants are carried in peat pots or together with a lump of earth. In this case, the stem is deepened more than before, raising the ground level to the beginning of the lower leaves.
When transferred to the greenhouse, the eggplant is provided with high humidity by spraying the aisles with a spray gun.
They try to fertilize seedlings regularly. This action is associated with the appearance of leaflets. Fertilizer is produced after the 2nd, 5th, 7th and 10th leaves, as well as during flowering, the appearance of ovaries and when the fruits ripen. After the transplant, top dressing for the seedling is organized on day 10 using a complex of mineral and organic fertilizers.
Plant care after transplantation
Eggplant is characterized by whimsicality and heat lovingness. Caring for it has certain features:
- A vegetable loves frequent watering - the ground at the root should be moist, especially during a period when there is little rain.
- Eggplant often has pollination problems. In this case, it is carried out manually.
- Plant nutrition should be regular.
- The formation of a plant to increase yield includes pinching the top, extra lateral shoots. Excess flowers, deformed ovaries and infected dry leaves are torn off.
- Periodic seedlings are inspected to notice the defeat of diseases or the attack of pests in time. In such cases, when spraying it is useful to use appropriate solutions.
- In order to have good air access to the root system, the earth is loosened at least 5 times during the summer.
- The fruits are ripped off in time during their technical maturity. Expecting full ripening of eggplant on a bush, its overall productivity decreases.
Growing vegetables from eggplant seeds is not an easy task. The gardener, having decided on such a step, will have to make every effort. Particular care should be taken when choosing soil for seedlings, organizing its transfer, drawing up a scheme of irrigation and fertilizer, providing the culture with comfortable lighting and temperature conditions.