How many pigs live and what determines their life expectancy

Pigs in the household are valued by farmers for their high productivity. One animal leaves a large amount of meat and sebaceous layer. In addition, sows are characterized by increased fertility and milk production. Pigs that do not go for slaughter can boast an average life expectancy among other representatives of farm animals. How many pigs live depends primarily on the conditions of their maintenance and diet. However, sometimes longevity is a hallmark of the breed. For example, dwarf varieties live less than farmers because of the structure of the body.

How many pigs live

Factors Affecting Life Span

The life expectancy of artiodactyls depends primarily on the environment in which the animal lives. The wild boar population is regulated by large predators, so many pigs die an unnatural death. On average, a wild male can live 15-20 years, and a female 10-15. These terms vary, depending on the natural data and the aggressiveness of the boar. A strong male can live 25 years, but females who are forced to bear and protect piglets in all urge often die before 10 years.

The following factors affect the life span of domestic pigs:

  • gender difference;
  • breed;
  • conditions of detention;
  • diet
  • illnesses;
  • castration.

For livestock breeders, the first thing that matters is not the longevity of the pig, but the timing of its productivity. Breeders often interbreed good producers with centenarians to extend the reproductive age of sows.

Gender and breeds of domestic pigs

With a balanced diet and compliance with sanitary standards, farmed artiodactyls can live 35 years. However, breeders rarely keep animals for so long, as young individuals are better suited for slaughter. Typically, non-breeding pigs are sent to the slaughterhouse at the age of 2 years. This is the maximum period of fattening of artiodactyls. If the animal was selected for divorce, the content of pigs on the farm depends on production characteristics. Sows can produce offspring up to 20 times, but after 5-6 piglets are born weak. The male usually retains its reproductive value for 10 years. On average, a female dies a natural death after 25 years, and a wild boar can live up to 40.

There is a classification of terms of life, depending on the artiodactyl species:

  • Landrace pigs have an average life span. The female lives up to 15 years, and the male - up to 20.
  • Duroc animals are optimal in terms of productivity and age. Pigs retain their performance for up to 20 years.
  • The white breed is considered to be precocious, therefore, none of its representatives lives longer than 15 years.
  • Vietnamese pigs among breeders are considered long-lived, since they are able to maintain their productivity up to 30 years.
  • Representatives of the Mangal breed also reach old age. Their average lifespan is 25 years.

There are also small breeds and dwarf pigs that are kept as pets. These artiodactyls live no longer than 15 years. Among the champions, one can distinguish an American dwarf pig named Max, who lived to be 19 years old. The typical lifespan for this breed is 8 years. Among wild little pigs, centenarians are representatives of the Bahamian breed.

It should be noted that piglets from crossing parents of different species live longer than representatives of a pure breed, and have stronger immunity. However, at the same time, such individuals may lose some of the productive characteristics, so hybrids are allowed to slaughter, preferring to breed pure breeds.

Conditions of detention

The life expectancy of pigs also depends on the conditions of their maintenance. To achieve the maximum life span of a pig, the following rules should be observed:

  1. The room where the pig lives, should be tight and warm.
  2. Corrals are built based on the number of individuals: animals should not be kept in cramped conditions.
  3. The stable air circulation must be in the stable, so the ventilation system is made at a height of 2 m from the floor.
  4. It is required to exclude loud noises and sharp smells in the room.
  5. It is important to monitor humidity and temperature: their level must be stable regardless of the time of year.
  6. The crib should be cleaned 3 times a week. Once a month, the pens are bleached with lime.

Compliance with these rules will help extend the life of artiodactyls. If the animal lives in unsanitary conditions, this increases the risk of infection.

Artiodactyl diet as a basis for long life

Pigs are valued among farmers for their unpretentiousness in the choice of feed. However, the diet of the artiodactyl must be balanced and complete. The absence of certain types of products can lead to disruption of the body, as a result of which the animal will live fewer years. Daily nutrition of an adult should contain:

  • fresh herbs or hay;
  • ground cereals;
  • carrots, beets and boiled potatoes;
  • fruits;
  • vitamin supplements.

Sour-milk products should be given to nursing sows to replenish calcium in the body. Special attention should be paid to vitamins and minerals. Without a full range of nutrients, artiodactyls may develop bone deformity and rickets. To avoid this, the animal should be given:

  • grass, bone and meat flour;
  • fish fat;
  • cake.

These components affect how long the sow will maintain high productivity at home.

Disease Prevention and Castration

An individual who has been ill with a small number of diseases lives longer, therefore, disease prevention is one of the main factors of artiodactyl longevity. Pigs should be vaccinated, checked for parasites and once every six months arrange a full examination with the assistance of a specialist. This will help to avoid infections and epidemics that not only shorten the life of animals, but can also end in death for the entire livestock on the farm.

Castration also increases the number of years lived in any animal.

The body does not spend energy on maintaining the reproductive system, and thanks to these resources it remains viable for longer. However, piglets should be neutered at an early age; for an adult, this can be very stressful.

Conclusion

The life expectancy of an artiodactyl depends on various factors. Among them, distinguish the characteristics of the breed, the conditions of detention and diet. Pigs have an average life span among domestic animals, however, while many individuals retain high productivity even at an advanced age.

The dwarf species lives less than farm animals, however, as a pet, the pig dies a natural death, so very often small breeds survive the farm, as large artiodactyls are sent for slaughter.

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