How to make drinkers and feeders for cows
Each farmer who breeds these animals needs cattle feeders and drinkers. It is simply impossible to do without this inventory, and in any case, you must buy it or assemble it yourself. The design of many such devices is not difficult, and even a beginner can make them. But before assembly, you must definitely choose a design and decide why this equipment will be used. There are many factors to consider.
Drinking bowls and feeders for cows
Cow drinker requirements
Before making drinkers for cows, you need to figure out how much water one animal needs per day. Much depends on the direction of production. For cattle breeds cattle water is required less than for dairy and meat and dairy animals. Moreover, during lactation, the need for water increases many times. The calculations are carried out as follows: to get 1 liter of milk, a cow needs at least 4 liters of water, so she needs at least 80 liters of clean drink per day.
Owners of highly milk animals should take into account that this figure can increase to 140-160 liters per day, therefore it is better to make a drinking bowl that will hold up to 150 liters of water, although you can do with a 100-liter capacity. Moreover, such a drinking bowl is designed for one animal of dairy breed, but this is if we are talking about cows during lactation. For meat animals, gobies and young animals, consumption rates are somewhat different. Here is how much water is needed in such cases:
- For meat cows and adult bulls per day, 65-70 liters of water are needed, therefore, drinking bowls for cattle of meat direction are made of a smaller volume.
- Young bulls and still not giving birth to heifers need an average of 40-50 liters of drinking water per day. We are talking about animals aged 1 year and older.
- Drinking bowls for calves that are not yet six months old should contain at least 10-15 liters of drinking. Moreover, this category of cattle is most demanding on the quality and temperature of water.
- For calves aged from six months to 1 year, drinking bowls are installed that hold 25-30 liters. Some farmers argue that it is at this age that calves most often break fragile equipment, so drinkers should be made strong enough.
It should be understood that different animals differ not only in the consumption rate of drinking, but also in the design of the drinking bowl. This means that, for example, for small calves you need a drinking bowl in which they can not put dirt. And at the same time, she should not have sharp corners and ledges that the kids could hit. For those cows that are in the last stages of pregnancy, you need to collect lukewarm water, because cold drinking can provoke a miscarriage in them, and this should not be allowed in any case.
Drinking bowls for calves and cows can be individual or group, designed for one animal or for the whole herd. In this case, the drawings and the principle of operation of each device can vary greatly. Homemade drinkers can be cast iron, stainless steel, durable plastic, wood or even stone. The main requirement for the material is that it should not be toxic to livestock, so drinkers should not be cast from lead or other similar metals. And if you make a tank of wood, you can not cover it with toxic paints.
You can make a drinker out of concrete, burnt clay or lay it out of bricks, but with such a construction, you need to make sure that there is no leakage anywhere, just so that you do not increase your drinking consumption with your own hands. And if a plastic container is used, it is necessary to check that this plastic does not dissolve and does not contain toxic components.
A plastic drinker is easy to clean and assemble at home, but using it in a barn, you must understand that plastic is not the most durable material.
Designs of various drinking bowls for livestock
Group and individual devices for drinking livestock can be done on the same principle. The type of device affects individual differences in design, but the general principle remains the same. Most farmers prefer automatic dispensers, although smaller or smaller farms use simpler systems. It all depends on what the owner can afford and on what he is able to do with his own hands.
The simplest drinking bowls for cows are ordinary tanks with water: a trough into which a bucket is collected, a metal bath or even a galvanized bucket. They are easy to install, they are cheap, and there is no need to make anything yourself. But such equipment has a couple of significant drawbacks. Firstly, in winter there are problems with heating the drink, and ice-cold liquid is harmful for both young and adult cattle. And secondly, it is constantly necessary to add liquid to these containers, which is not always convenient.
Drinking valve float
Such a system is not the most difficult to manufacture, but at the same time it is very convenient and reliable. This type of level drinkers are used by many farmers precisely because of the simplicity of the design. The same scheme is used in drain tanks, so some take some parts of the structure from there. The dimensions of the device may vary, as in this scheme both group and individual car drinkers are made. A variety of materials can be used to make this automatic device.
The general scheme is as follows: a drink is fed through a pipe from a container located at a certain elevation. Access to water is blocked by a rising flap attached to the beam. The other end is attached to the float, which should float in the drinker itself. In this case, the total mass of the float must exceed the mass of the damper so that it can raise it. When the water in the car wash decreases, the float lowers and raises the damper. The liquid begins to arrive, the float rises again and the damper lowers.
A similar drinker will work as long as liquid remains in the main tank. The tank required for the device must be at a certain elevation, and from it drinking can come in several drinkers at once. A winter construction of this type should be with additional heating. Moreover, it is desirable that both the pipe and the tank with the typed drink are heated. It will be correct to periodically clean the drinker so that cows do not have to drink dirty water.
Cup and teat drinkers
The cup drinker is made approximately according to the same principle as the valve device. Only here, the role of the damper or valve is essentially played by the drinking cup itself. When the liquid decreases in it, the bowl rises and opens the valve, and therefore the liquid fills it, it drops and blocks the flow. This drinker is convenient when keeping animals on a leash. It is only necessary to teach cows to drink from these bowls. You can learn more about how these automatic drinkers are arranged from the available photos and videos.
It is most difficult to make nipple devices for feeding young animals on their own. The fact is that very few farmers can make a nipple (the same nipple) on their own. And the description of the process will not help here, you have to buy it ready-made. The dimensions of the device depend on the age of the calves. The milk drinker for babies is relatively small, in contrast to the containers for grown-up young animals. Calves usually need to be accustomed to such devices, so the farmer cannot rely on automation in this matter.
Pasture Feeders for Cows
When keeping cows in the cold season, it is more difficult for animals to provide the right amount of nutrients, so the farmer will most likely need a hay feeder, in which pre-prepared food will be placed. It’s not worth it to just pour hay on the burenki: in this case a considerable part of it will be crushed into the ground and mixed with manure, therefore a pasture feeder for livestock is used here. And it is worth remembering that such devices are used not only for feeding cows.
The feeder for keeping cows in the winter is such that the animals can constantly get food out of it. But at the same time, they should not injure themselves or waste wasted hay. The ideal option is a cylindrical-shaped container, which has a slot 15-20 cm wide below. The cylinder is on a pallet whose diameter is 40-50 cm larger than the diameter of the cylinder itself. From above, hay is loaded into the tank, which cows get from below as needed.
Such feeders for keeping cattle are easy to make even for an inexperienced farmer. They are easy to use, not dangerous for animals and very durable. Such a cow feeder can be made of any materials - it all depends on the capabilities of the breeder himself. You just need to make sure that there are no sharp corners or ledges anywhere that the cow could get hurt, after which you can safely set the feeder in the pasture.
Summer pasture feeders
Such devices are usually made automatic type, because of which their design is somewhat complicated. Nevertheless, such a do-it-yourself cow feeder is very useful on the farm. It is done on the same principle as a cup drinker. When the tray is empty, it rises and opens access to the feed, which is filled up to the desired level. So you can constantly feed animals without unnecessary waste of food. Here's what the forums write about similar devices:
“Feeders for walking during summer keeping are primarily needed for owners of dairy cattle. These animals require an additional portion of vitamins, which the grass cannot provide in the pasture, therefore they are fed with various concentrates and vitamin supplements. This allows you to increase milk yield and, as a result, increase profits. "
Often, such a feeding device is a long wooden trough in which the feed is poured. It is made at such a height that it is convenient for the cows to eat from it. Food is topped up as needed. Some farmers prefer automatic feeders. They can also be of group or individual type, depending on the preferences of the breeder. Some owners even for one burenka set an automatic feeder.
When kept in a barn, feeders can be made according to the same principle as grazers for grazing. There are no fundamental differences between the two types. The only difference in the content of cows in the stall is that they essentially become attached to their feeder, but this does not affect its design in any way. As in the case of drinking bowls, making feeders is made from environmentally friendly materials. Wood, steel or cast iron is best.
Both drinking bowls and cattle feeders are not at all difficult to make with your own hands. Of course, certain knowledge will be required here, but many owners will be able to cope with the assembly itself. It is only important to choose the right design and installation, and then home-made feeders and drinkers will fully pay for themselves.