How to grow an orchid from seeds
When breeding indoor orchids, gardeners use different breeding methods. One of the most popular is the seed growing method. Orchid seeds ripen with successful pollination of the plant. For seeds to germinate in the soil, a sterile environment with the presence of mycelium will be required.
How to grow an orchid from seeds
Phalaenopsis orchid seeds are small. It is possible to see how the seeds of a house orchid look like only under a microscope.
Phalaenopsis orchid seeds have some physiological characteristics that impede the process of their successful germination:
- There is no membrane (endosperm) that surrounds the embryo. Such a shell helps seeds to absorb from the soil all the necessary micro and macro elements for full growth and development. In tropical orchids, seed buds form a symbiosis with mushrooms, sticking to their mycelium. Almost any type of mushroom is suitable for this process - honey mushrooms, tinder fungi, rhizoctonia or phytophthora.li>
- Seedlings not containing a containment are sensitive to environmental conditions. They do not have strong immunity to various diseases and pests. If they are not provided with optimal microclimate conditions, it will not work to get new plants from them.
It is necessary to create greenhouse conditions for seedlings with a stable high temperature, air humidity and good lighting. Under these conditions, you will be able to grow new specimens that will bloom for the first 4-5 years after sowing.
How to collect
To get an orchid seed, you need 2 flowering specimens.
Collect pollen from the stamens of one plant with a brush and apply on the pistil of another flower. After that, the pollinated flower will wither. If the plant throws off the foliage, then the pollination process was unsuccessful. If the result is positive, the fruit box will begin to form 2 weeks after the manipulation.
The ripening seed is small, resembles white dust. Collecting seeds is problematic, despite the fact that artificial pollination is almost always successful.
Most often, flower growers order material in specialized stores. The main supplier is China. Therefore, the cultivation of orchids from Chinese seeds is a hot topic for many gardeners.
What to propagate
Orchid cultivation from seeds is carried out in a special container - a glass flask. It is not worth planting seeds in plastic pots, vases, plates and ceramic flowerpots. Some growers use vessels for chemical reagents with a volume of 200-300 ml.
If you do not have such dishes, you can use the usual half liter transparent jar.
To successfully germinate seedlings, containers with absolute tightness should be used. For flasks, special plugs are used. If there are no plugs, you can make a dense cotton swab to seal the container. In the lids of the cans, 2-3 holes should be made and hammered with cotton.
To successfully grow a hordea with seeds, they are advised to plant them in shredded sphagnum moss. You can also use a special substrate.
This substance includes several polysaccharides, which are obtained from different species of red and brown seaweed. After the extraction process, this mixture is converted to a white or yellowish powder. But when it reacts with water it turns into a jelly-like mass.
The most optimal substrate is Lewis Knudson's nutrient medium. This mixture is used in the industrial germination of orchids with seeds. The advantage of this mixture is that germination occurs without creating symbiosis with mushrooms.
Agar-agar is the basis of any nutrient substrate for the propagation of these flowers. If you are unable to purchase this substance, you can prepare it yourself.
The recipe is simple and consists of several ingredients:
- orthophosphoric acid;
- potassium carbonate solution (potash);
- fructose and glucose - 10 g each;
- agar-agar - 10-15 g;
- distilled water - 200 ml.
Instructions for preparing the nutrient mixture:
- First fill the agar-agar with water. Set aside for a while to swell.
- Add fructose, glucose and a swollen substance to boiled distilled water. Mix well and hold it a little longer in a water bath until a homogeneous jelly-like mass is obtained.
The first two components from the list are used to create the necessary acidity of the medium. The optimal level of this indicator (pH) for the seeds of the plant is 4.8-5.2. You can determine the soil acidity level using special indicator strips (litmus). You can buy them at any chemical reagent store. A drop of each component is added to the mixture, then the acidity level is checked, and so is added until the acidity reaches the required level.
Waiting for an orchid from seeds is not a quick task
To grow an orchid from seeds at home, you will need to conduct a number of preparatory measures.
Sterilization of the flask and mixture
To successfully grow orchids from seeds at home, prepare the containers in advance - wash and sterilize thoroughly
Cans or flasks are calcined in an oven at 150 ° C for half an hour. Corks, covers pour over boiling water.
The second stage of sterilization consists in calcining the cans together with the contents - the nutrient mixture. 70-80 g of the nutrient mixture are poured into a 200 ml container. Then tightly cork and placed in the oven for the same time and with the same temperature as in the previous case.
Closed sterilized banks are set aside, and after 5 days they are checked how well they are sterilized. If the mixture is not moldy, the disinfection process was carried out efficiently. You can store this mixture closed and without seeds for about 2 months in the refrigerator. Before sowing, it is heated in a water bath to melt the jelly-like mass.
Before planting orchid seeds from China, they undergo a sanitizing treatment. They are dipped in a solution of calcium hypochloride (bleach). The recipe for cooking is simple - 10 g of the substance is added to 100 ml of boiled water, then stirred well.
Seeds are poured into a disinfectant solution for 15 minutes, periodically shaken. After sterilization, the material is seeded.
Planting orchid seeds itself is not very difficult. The following is a step-by-step process of this technology. Sprouts grow from seeds for 6–9 months, depending on the plant variety.
- diffused light;
- long daylight hours - 14 hours;
- temperature - 25-28 °;
- air humidity - 70-80%.
Under such conditions, the seedlings are until they germinate.
Sowing orchid seeds from China stands above the steam to ensure complete sterility of the process.
On the burner put a pot of water, bring to a boil. Then a grate with a vessel and a mixture is fixed above it. The lid is placed on the grill.
The seeds are removed from the disinfecting solution using a sterile syringe or pipette in small portions and distributed over the surface of the nutrient mixture. It is necessary to sow the material as soon as possible in order to prevent its infection by microbes and bacteria.
To seedlings evenly distributed, shake the container. After the planting of orchid seeds is carried out, the flask is placed in a mini-greenhouse, greenhouse or florarium.
From the resulting mixture, orchid seeds germinate in about 2-3 weeks. At first they resemble microscopic green balls, then they are transformed into thin threads on which leaves appear and roots at the very end.
To grow an orchid at home from seeds will not work out quickly. This will require at least a year for the seedlings to grow, grow stronger and are ready for transplanting into pots.
You can remove the sprouts with tweezers. But this method is risky, as you can easily injure tender seedlings. There is another, more reliable way to extract seedlings - pour the nutrient mixture with warm water, shake it lightly and pour all the contents onto a shallow and wide dish. Add a couple drops of Fundazol 0.5% concentration. After 15 minutes you can extract small plants.
Transplanting in pots
Growing orchids from seeds after germination is based on the same principle as adult plants.
You can plant your flowers in plastic, transparent containers with several holes at the bottom. The height and width of the pots must match the size of the root system.
For planting, a substrate of the following components is used:
- pine bark;
- shredded rhizome of fern;
- pieces of moss sphagnum.
All components should be taken in equal parts and mixed. To prevent infection and decay, the substrate is shed with boiling water, then sprinkled with charcoal powder (10 tablets are consumed per liter of the finished mixture).
Grown phalaenopsis from seeds needs regular maintenance:
- seedlings are sprayed every day with warm, settled water from a spray bottle;
- provide 12-hour daylight;
- high humidity in the room - about 80%;
- the optimum temperature is the same as for adult plants - 23-28 °.
Under these conditions, growing orchids from Chinese seeds will be productive. In a few years you will receive strong and healthy plants with peduncles.
Growing orchids from Chinese seeds is easy. Subject to the above technology, this process will always be successful. In this way, you can get flowering plants on your windowsill, which will delight the whole family.