How to distinguish false mushrooms
Honey mushrooms belong to the group of difficultly recognizable mushrooms. They include many varieties. Among their number there are edible and inedible species. It is difficult to distinguish false mushrooms, because each false foil resembles a real Mushroom in appearance, size and habitat.
Differences between false mushrooms and real ones
Honey mushrooms are divided into several types: winter, spring, summer and autumn. Each has its own false subspecies.
The winter view differs from other varieties in harvest time. It occurs in mid-autumn and can continue throughout the winter.
Winter (flumalin) grow on the stumps of birches, oaks. They have a hemispherical, honey-yellow dance. In conditions of high humidity, the surface becomes mucous.
Creamy flesh. There are no scales and rings on the leg.
This type is tasty and valuable among consumers. In addition, it is suitable for cultivation in the home.
Winter mushrooms grown at home in taste are not inferior to forest counterparts and are absolutely safe.
One of the most popular species is the collibia forest-loving. The hat is hygrophanic, creamy brown, with a light border. The mushroom grows in pine and spruce forests. The flesh tastes tough, so the woody collibia is not in demand among mushroom pickers.
Another popular variety is the white slimy mushroom. It grows on the bark of trees and on the felling. His hat is snow-white, mucous in any weather. The variety contains a ringlet on the leg, completely covered with scales.
Spring varieties are not of great nutritional value, so they are rarely used in cooking.
Summer mushrooms bear fruit from May to early September. Edible, hemispherical, light and dark brown mushrooms with a watery surface. The leg is dense and hard, its length is 3-7 cm, the color is yellow-brown with a pronounced white girdle in the middle.
Such mushrooms grow on trees, land, stumps. They have excellent taste and aroma, are widely used in cooking. The disadvantage is that there are many false representatives.
False autumn mushrooms differ from the previously described species in large dimensions. In adulthood, hats reach about 11 cm in diameter. The surface color is gray-yellow, light brown. The leg contains a pronounced ring. Young mushrooms have a scaly surface. As it grows, it becomes smooth.
Autumn mushrooms are overgrown with white spores, so in overripe specimens the surface of the hat often looks moldy. As the plates grow, they change color from light yellow to light brown. Real autumn mushrooms taste good.
Recognize autumn mushrooms from others will be obtained by a light glow at night.
Autumn hemp grows at log cabins of pines, spruces, birches, in diameter of aspen, oak hemp. They will also be able to meet on the trunks of shrubs, trees, and even next to herbaceous plants. In autumn there are 2 false counterparts that have great similarities in appearance and smell.
When picking mushrooms, you must be very careful
This group includes both edible and poisonous species. When collecting them, you should be especially careful and attentive.
This false feather of the genus Gifoloma resembles an edible summer fungus. The hat is the same hygrophanic and has the property to change color from light yellow to dark rusty (brown) color. The border is light brown. In a humid environment, the surface of the hat is slippery and slightly sticky.
Unlike edible mushrooms, seroplate foil does not contain scales and ringing on the leg.
According to the description, the variety with age changes the color of the plates from pale yellow to light gray. Mass appearance begins in the middle of summer, so it is difficult to confuse it with an edible openpenck.
Seroplate fungus loves to grow on rotten rhizomes, litter, stumps, pine felling. It is rarely seen in a birch or oak grove.
Meet sulfur-yellow mushroom will turn out on a pine logging and rotting parts of hardwood. Mass gathering begins in the spring, at the same time as the summer gathering.
Sulfur yellow honey mushrooms are false as well as summer mushrooms, grow in heaps, have round hats. Their color is more saturated: bright yellow or olive. Over time, the shelter transforms into rags (cobweb fringe) that hang down along the edge of the hats.
Identify the real sulfur-yellow individuals obtained by the following signs:
- lack of ringlet and scales on the knife;
- plates of pale yellow color in young fungi, in adults - violet-purple;
- the flesh is yellow, thinnes out a bad aroma, bitter.
Sulfur yellow mushroom is weakly poisonous and tasteless, therefore, during the collection, it is bypassed.
Candoll False Foam
Previously, Candoll’s false feather was poisonous, now it belongs to the group of edible, but not very tasty. This false honey agaric grows on stumps and deciduous wood. He prefers shaded places. The fruiting period is long - from May to October.
There are some differences that help to recognize this view:
- on the edge of the hat are the remains of a shelter resembling a transparent film or flakes;
- with age, the snow-white hat becomes tan;
- the old specimen becomes brittle, and his hat is outstretched;
- Candolle's leg is not ringed;
- the color of the plates in young specimens is light gray; in adults, it acquires a dark brown color.
The fungus, although it belongs to the group of false mushrooms, is not dangerous to humans. It is rare.
Some false species are difficult to distinguish from edible.
Galerine skirted - poisonous false mushroom of forest mushroom. These false ducks look the same as the summer species. The hat is hygrophic, reddish in color. Young specimens have bedspreads, adults have a skirt on a leg. With this similarity, it is difficult to distinguish edible from a false species.
The only difference is the size, which is smaller than that of the edible species. Hats with a diameter of 3-4 cm, are formed on a small leg with a height of about 4-5 cm.
False honey agarics grow in a small pile throughout the summer and until mid-autumn. They are met in a pine forest or in a birch grove on rotten wood. The leg just below the ringlet has a fibrous structure.
If you eat even a small piece, there is a high risk of poisoning. The pulp contains the same toxic substances (amatoxins) as in the pale grebe. To eliminate the risk of collecting poisonous mushrooms, mushroom pickers recommend collecting summer mushrooms only on trunks and stumps of hardwood (birch, oak, etc.).
The thick-footed mushroom is a false double, which bears the greatest resemblance to the autumn open-air mushroom. The fruiting period is in August-October. The thick-legged one has the same ringlet and scales on the leg. The color of the hats is pastel.
According to the description, this species has 2 differences: the growth environment and the frequency of fruiting. False mushrooms grow mainly on coniferous litter and bear fruit constantly. At the same time, autumn mushrooms grow on stumps in a birch, oak grove, and fruiting occurs in waves.
Thick-legged grow in small groups and do not form mass intergrowth, like autumn ones. The legs are in the form of a tuber.
These are normal edible mushrooms. But because of the hard and not too tasty legs, only hats are used in cooking.
The mushroom got its name, thanks to large numerous flakes on the surface of the cap and legs. This is the main difference between autumn mushroom and flake.
The main symptoms:
- Big hat. In adults, its diameter reaches 11-13 cm.
- The leg is thin, contains a ringlet, which is also characteristic of autumn mushrooms.
- The growth environment is stumps, as well as rotten felling and deciduous trees.
Another difference is excessive density and rigidity, which is uncharacteristic for the autumn mushroom. This species is edible. It is boiled, then marinated.
In Japan, they grow a special kind - royal (golden flake). It differs from the ordinary with a pimpled surface and a reddish color of the cap. It is grown on stumps and logs, willingly used in cooking.
The second name of Ryadovka is honey-yellow-red honey. It occurs mainly among pines and firs: on a felling or stumps. Fruits in the period from late summer to mid-autumn. It grows in one place for 4-5 pcs.
Ryadovka produces an impressive effect in a flashy color: yellow-red or yellow-orange, which is its main difference from the autumn look.
The diameter of her hat is no more than 7 cm. There is no ring on the leg.
Due to the bitter taste and hard flesh, mushroom pickers try not to collect this type of plant.
Mushroom poisoning can lead to death.
It is possible to meet a brick-red mushroom in deciduous groves (on stumps and a felling), less often in a pine forest. In appearance and color, it resembles summer species. The hat has a smooth, scaleless surface, red-brick color. Brick red from real mushrooms is distinguished by the absence of a ring on the leg and the presence of the remains of the bedspread on the hat.
Fruiting occurs at the end of summer and lasts until mid-autumn. The diameter of the cap reaches 12 cm.
Brick Red False Foam is poisonous. If you eat it, the consequences will be serious. First, symptoms of poisoning appear: dizziness, nausea, vomiting, blanching of the skin. Then comes CNS paralysis and oxygen deprivation of the brain. The result is death. Upon detection, such false ducks should be destroyed.
The second name of the garlic is oak, or ordinary false feather. False garlic grow everywhere: in deciduous and coniferous forests. Found on bedding, near stumps. Fruiting occurs at the end of summer and lasts until mid-autumn.
The diameter of the hat is not more than 5 cm, the color varies from pale white to light brown. In adult specimens, hats are open, legs are thin, sometimes twisted, stiff, light or dark brown in color.
Garlic does not have a ringlet and scales, like a real mushroom, while it is delicious edible. It is eaten raw, pickled and boiled.
Forest garlic men are determined by some signs:
- the presence of garlic flavor;
- lack of skirts on the leg;
- peach or snow-white plates.
Unlike others, the false honey agaric meadow grass, or field, grows on the edges, meadows, pastures, fields. It can be found even in the garden and in the garden.
An abundantly bearing meadow has a long fruiting period: from late summer to mid-autumn. Field mushrooms are small in size: up to 5 cm wide and the same height.
The hat is hygrophic, of a red color, bordering a tone lighter. The mushroom is edible, has a good aroma and taste. A characteristic feature is the absence of a skirt on the leg and the presence of wavy plates under the hat.
The meadow has one false species - the whitish talker. These false mushrooms look just like a puddle raincoat, are poisonous and deadly. In their pulp, the amount of muscarine is greater than in any fly agaric. The fruiting period, environment and growth conditions of this species are the same as in meadow.
The white hat is ocher or grayish in color. In rainy weather, it becomes mucous, but does not contain a tubercle in the center. The middle of the cap of the toadstool is pressed inward. The plate is yellow, located much thicker than that of the meadow.
Honey mushrooms have many false species. Some of them are edible, others are poisonous. When going to the forest for mushrooms, it is imperative to study information that will help distinguish edible species from grebes and avoid poisoning.