How to distinguish false champignons from real ones
Champignons are a popular type of mushroom that is easy to grow at home. There is not only an edible appearance, but also false champignons. They pose a danger to humans - they can not be eaten.
The difference between false champignons and real ones
Description of the appearance of the mushroom
Fake champignons vary, depending on age and the place where they grow. Most often, mushrooms are rusty, called yellow skinned. Also familiar is the appearance of false champignons under the name "ploskoshlyapkovy". It has a pungent unpleasant odor reminiscent of iodine.
The color of the false champignon hat may vary. If the mushroom grows in a clearing well-lit by the sun, it will have a grayish tint. Organisms growing in forests are beige with an orange tone. Young false champignon has white plates under the hat, which darken with age and turn black. They are easy to distinguish, because real mushrooms have a rough hat, sometimes covered with scales, while the double has a smooth skin.
False champignon has a leg 10 cm high and 2.5 cm in diameter. It is cylindrical in shape, slightly thickened at the bottom. In the middle there is a double ring of white color. Under the hat there are thin frequent white plates with a pinkish tinge. In older mushrooms, they acquire a dark brown color.
Differences between false and edible champignon
False champignons (poisonous) and real are often confused, and this is deadly. The poisonous champignon double has a dark circle in the center of the cap; when pressed, yellowish spots appear. This verification method does not provide an exact guarantee, so it should be combined with other methods.
Find the false champignon among the real ones by the following signs:
- its slice quickly acquires a bright yellow hue;
- double has a pungent odor of a disinfectant;
- during cooking, the water also turns yellow.
These are insidious mushrooms, even after a long cooking, the toxic substances in them do not decay.
Inedible champignon is similar to a pale grebe, white fly agaric, fly agaric smelly and meadow mushrooms. They have a similar color and shape of a hat, which sometimes resembles a chanterelle mushroom. False champignons most often appear in mixed and deciduous forests in July, and they can also be found in clearings in city parks.
Real champignons look different. The cut location has a pinkish tint. Also, the edible mushroom begins to grow in May, while the false - only in the middle of summer.
Inedible champignon actively absorbs toxic substances from the soil. The use of such mushrooms leads to severe intoxication.
Anatoxins block the production of deoxyribonucleic acid; as a result, healthy cells die. This affects the kidneys, intestines and liver the most. A large portion of the eaten mushrooms can lead to death.
Poisonous champignons also have substances that negatively affect proteins. This causes a violation of the contraction of the heart muscles.
Symptoms of Poisoning
At the first symptoms of poisoning, call an ambulance
The first sign of poisoning is vomiting and upset stomach. These symptoms occur within 2-3 hours. Gastric colic appears later. Similar symptoms are caused by pale toadstool and poisonous meadow mushrooms.
There are several stages of mushroom poisoning. Their description:
- Spastic pain in the abdomen appears, body temperature rises. Diarrhea begins later.
- A person feels a slight improvement in well-being, but toxic substances continue to affect the liver and kidneys. This is confirmed by analyzes. Remission lasts 1-2 days.
- At this stage, damage to the internal organs reaches its peak. Hepatic and renal failure begins.
In case of poisoning with false champignons, it is necessary to call an ambulance at the first stage of poisoning. Prior to her arrival, it is important to remove toxins from the body.
Description of first aid:
- drink 1 l of a weak solution of potassium permanganate and cause vomiting to rinse the stomach;
- take sorbents at the rate of 1 g per 1 kg of patient weight;
- a warm heating pad is placed on the stomach and legs: this helps to avoid circulatory disorders;
- drink strong tea or warm water.
After hospitalization, the patient is detoxified. This is an enema, gastric lavage or hemodialysis. The choice of treatment depends on how much dangerous the patient ate.
Later, the patient is restored water-electrolyte balance or put a dropper. The victim must also adhere to a special diet:
- refuse to eat fatty, spicy and smoked foods;
- eat only boiled food;
- finely chop vegetables and fruits.
When providing first aid, you can not cause vomiting in children under 3 years of age and women in position. Also, do not put enemas for people aged without the help of a doctor. The victim is forbidden to take drugs that fasten the stomach. This is especially important when poisoning with such dangerous mushrooms as pale grebe.
Inedible champignon is a dangerous mushroom. Its toxic properties cannot be neutralized even with prolonged heat treatment. Most often, it occurs from July to September. Edible mushrooms can be easily distinguished from false ones in a number of external signs.
The first symptoms of poisoning appear after 3-4 hours. Eating large quantities of the product can lead to death.