How to cut grapes in Siberia
Grapes are a southern plant. Thanks to the work of breeders who managed to develop frost-resistant varieties, this plant has been successfully grown in Siberia and other regions with a harsh climate. The correct pruning of grapes in Siberia is important so that the harvest is generous.
Grape pruning in Siberia
Why autumn pruning
Cutting grapes in autumn in Siberia is an important event. In the northern regions, it is not advisable to leave pruning in the spring. Before shelter for the winter, the vine is tied in bunches.
In the spring, when the air temperature becomes positive, a greenhouse effect will begin to form under the waterproof shelter. If the grapes were not pruned, then uncleaned foliage, buds and dead shoots will begin to rot. Since all branches were collected in one bundle, healthy branches will also be affected by the fungus.
Most often, such a bush dies, it is difficult to reanimate, so you have to re-grow grape bushes or wait a bit to wake up the underground buds.
Autumn pruning allows avoiding such troubles, in addition, after trimming, the bushes take up much less space, it is easier to cover. Grape pruning in Siberia has a number of features, it differs significantly from pruning in the southern regions.
Due to the harsh climate, the vine does not always have time to ripen to help the plant, pruning is carried out in two stages:
- Brightening pruning.
- The final fall pruning.
It is necessary to clean the bush from excess shoots, twigs, a certain amount of foliage. Provide access of sunlight to the branches so that they have time to mature properly before the onset of cold weather. This event is held in the fall, after the first frost, from September 15 to 25.
Especially the first pruning is needed if the summer turned out to be relatively cold or varieties with poor ripening vines are grown.
After harvesting, the top is trimmed to the grape bush, green shoots and stepsons are removed. Then the branches are untied from the trellis and carefully shifted to the aisle. After that, it is necessary to carefully examine the plant, and remove the curves and weak branches, antennae, remaining stepsons, remove stale foliage from the bottom of the bush.
Such pruning is done by seedlings older than three years. For one-year bushes, only the top is cut off, and for two-year-old seedlings, stepsons and tops are removed.
For frost-resistant varieties, it makes no sense to trim in two stages. The vine and the crop have time to mature well, so pruning is carried out at a time, after harvesting. This is the period from September 20 to October 15.
Before trimming, you need to remove the foliage
The second stage of pruning the bushes takes place after the first frost, when the subzero temperature killed the foliage. During this period, the movement of nutrients ceases, the ideal time to prepare the grape bushes for winter is coming.
Getting to the final pruning, remove all damaged foliage from the bushes. If at the first stage of trimming the procedure was performed from top to bottom, then at the second stage the movement occurs from bottom to top. Fruit links and knots are cut off. After the vine bushes are trimmed and cleaned of leaves, the branches are tied in bunches, intercepting in several places with soft wire.
In this form, the beams are laid on a substrate. Wooden bars, spruce paws can act as a substrate. This stage is important, as the vine should not be in contact with the ground. Otherwise, the vine may be saturated with moisture from the ground and mold. After the first frosts, a significant increase in temperature in the daytime often occurs, and this is quite enough for the growth of molds.
From above, the connected vines are covered with spruce, boxes, roofing felt, plastic wrap and other moisture-proof materials. However, shelter from such materials is temporary.
When the grapes are covered
You need to cover the plants at a time when the average daily temperature is within -5 ° C, in other words, when the soil has already frozen properly and it is simply not possible to stick a shovel into it. Then grapes are covered with warming materials: tops, bags with tyrsa, dry foliage, etc., and covered with moisture-proof materials on top.
Do not forget that the buds on grape bushes can withstand frosts down to -17 ° C, but the roots of plants can be affected already at -8 ° C. Therefore, the roots also need to be given due attention. Snow is a good shelter.
The thicker the snow layer in the region, the thinner the insulation layer is needed when sheltering. The thing is that a centimeter of snow is able to keep the temperature at 1 ° C. If there is a lot of snow in the region, then it is enough to cover the plants with waterproof material.
Growing grapes in Siberia is not so difficult if you follow all the rules for caring for plants. It is important to focus on the frost resistance of varieties. Proper pruning of grapes in autumn is the key to a good harvest next season.