How to cure coccidiosis in rabbits
Coccidiosis in rabbits is an ailment caused by the simplest parasite - coccidia. Coccidiosis in rabbits is of several types, depending on the affected organ. Allocate only 10 varieties, of which only one affects the liver, and all the rest - the gastrointestinal tract.
Coccidiosis in rabbits
Outbreaks of coccidiosis most often occur in the spring when feed changes occur. Most often young animals are sick, including one-day-old rabbits. Consider this disease in more detail, pay attention to the symptoms and treatment, and also talk about prevention.
What causes coccidiosis
As mentioned earlier, the causative agent of the described disease are parasites belonging to the genus Aimeria. In the environment, coccidia are formed into the so-called oocyst, which, when it enters the digestive tract, passes to the next stage of development - it sporoses, and then into solicox.
When the disease takes the form of soloxox, the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines is destroyed. Moreover, parasites are transported by introduction into the cytoplasm, which allows them to carry out the process of decay into several nuclei, which subsequently multiply, and the process of reinfection occurs.
Coccidia survive perfectly in almost any climatic conditions, and also react poorly to chemical effects. Even high temperatures do not immediately kill parasites. For example, when exposed to hot steam at 100 ° C, it will be necessary to process for at least 15 seconds, otherwise it is likely that not all oocysts will die.
Most often, sick rabbits are the source of infection, while they release oocysts into the environment that go out with feces.
Many breeders are interested in the question whether rabbit coccidiosis is dangerous for humans. The answer is no, a person should not be afraid of infection.
The process of coccidiosis infection is mechanical. In order to get sick, there must be contact with the oocysts. If adult individuals can have contact with relatives of their feces, which happens often with improper care, young animals are most often infected due to the ingestion of the pathogen during breastfeeding.
In addition to the above, there are a number of factors that increase the chances of rabbits getting coccidiosis:
- too high landing density;
- young animals are kept together with adult rodents;
- inadequate cell hygiene;
- the presence of drafts, violations in the temperature regime;
- poor nutrition, lack of vitamins and minerals;
- too much protein in food;
- the presence in the diet of cow's milk, wheat and bran;
- a sharp change in the nature of animal nutrition.
How does the disease manifest itself
The first signs of coccidiosis appear 3-4 days after the actual infection. As mentioned earlier, a disease can affect either the gastrointestinal tract or the liver, depending on the type of pathogen. An adult is easier to bear the disease, and babies are able to begin to die from the first day.
Symptoms of gastric coccidiosis
- loss of appetite;
- manifestation of weakness;
- loose and frequent stools, which can soon be replaced by persistent constipation;
- hard bloated abdomen, bloating and flatulence are observed in the intestines;
- rapid weight loss;
- loss of gloss by hair, it becomes groomed and disheveled;
- damage to the nervous system, convulsions and confusion. In this case, the medicine is selected individually.
Coccidiosis in rabbits in the photo and video looks like bloating, the symptoms are almost the same.
If treatment of coccidiosis in rabbits is not timely, there is a risk of their death, especially if the rabbit is sick. Without treatment, death occurs after 2 weeks.
Individuals who survived are in 99% of cases carriers of the virus, that is, they represent a danger to relatives, therefore it is recommended to slaughter such rabbits for meat, since it is not dangerous to humans. Intestinal coccidiosis in rabbits can be fully cured only at the initial stage.
Symptoms of the liver form of coccidiosis
Symptoms and signs of the liver form are different from the gastrointestinal. First of all, the difference is that the symptoms are not so pronounced, which complicates the diagnosis. This fact affects the duration of the disease, it can last from 4 to 8 weeks.
Let's move on to the symptoms that indicate that the rabbit is sick with hepatic coccidiosis:
- Appetite worsens, while colic still eats, albeit with less food.
- Body weight is also reduced, but not so rapidly that it is not a pronounced sign of the disease.
- The mucous eye becomes yellow due to the fact that the level of bilirubin rises.
- Yellowness manifests itself in the rest of the mucosa. The liver does not function properly.
Gradually, the health status of the rabbit will worsen, extreme exhaustion sets in, which causes death. With adequate supportive care, the survival rate of rabbits is high, although the animal remains a carrier of parasites, i.e. oocysts. The liver restores its functions, but there is no more full-fledged work and the symptoms may return.
In order to confirm or deny the presence of coccidiosis in a rabbit, you need to conduct a laboratory study. The biomaterial that is required in this case is rabbit feces. The veterinarian will be able to see under the microscope if there is an oocyst in the stool or not.
Most often, the diagnosis can be established posthumously during a pathological examination. After opening the veterinarian can see the following picture:
- The mucous membrane of a sick rabbit, if it has an intestinal appearance of coccidiosis, is densely covered with white vesicles with dense contents.
- Some nodes are surrounded by affected hemorrhagic tissue, it is these photos and videos that can most often be found on veterinary forums.
- The mucous membrane of the stomach and mucosa is noticeably thickened, there is a thick white coating.
- Often you can find small ulcers, which indicates that inflammation has developed on the basis of coccidiosis.
- If the rabbit was sick with a liver form, then the first thing that catches your eye is the enlarged choleretic ducts.
- On the surface of the liver there are white nodular formations in which oocysts are located.
Now we will learn how to treat coccidiosis in farm rabbits, and with what drugs coccidiosis in rabbits is currently treated.
Treatment of coccidiosis with folk remedies
No matter how strange it sounds, coccidiosis is treated with iodine. The fact is that iodine is famous for its antiseptic properties, in addition, it is an excellent antioxidant.
After you start to water the rabbit with iodine-containing water, the oocysts will stop further reproduction, and the existing ones will certainly break up. Such treatment will give results only in conjunction with strong medications.
Those who were looking for treatment of coccidiosis with folk remedies should pay attention to iodine.
How to cure coccidiosis with antibiotics
Despite the fact that iodine shows quite good results in the fight against coccidiosis, veterinarians prefer "heavy artillery", that is, antibiotics. To combat coccidia, drugs of the sulfanilamide group or drugs based on toltrazuril and diclazuril are used.
If the veterinarian chose this group of antibiotics, then the treatment regimen will look like this:
- First option. Within 5 days, the rabbit should be given sulfadimethoxine, each day reducing the dosage. After this cycle, you need to pause for 4 days, and then repeat the treatment again.
- The second option. It is necessary to give phthalazole in combination with norsulfazole and chloramphenicol, the course will also last 5 days, after which a pause and repetition of treatment are needed.
Currently, rabbit breeding specialists use coccidiostatics, a group of antibiotics for the treatment of coccidiosis. Coccidiostatics include antibiotics such as Solicox and Baytril. They must be used strictly in accordance with the instructions attached to the medicine, which will indicate the necessary dosage for the injection and how to properly dilute it. It is believed that these drugs begin to act faster, almost immediately after use, and are more aggressive on the pathogen. In addition to the fact that these drugs will be an excellent therapy for the acute course of the disease, life-long prophylaxis can be built on the use of Solicox and Baytril. For prevention, it is necessary to conduct a course of treatment once a calendar month, repeating it 12 times a year. You can also use metronidazole and brovitacoccid.
In addition to treating the rabbit with antibiotics, you must try to add vitamins A and B to the diet of the sick rabbit: this is an excellent prevention of coccidiosis in rabbits. These components are contained in kefir, yogurt, as well as in acidophilus milk. Earlier it was said that there should not be an excess of protein in the diet of a sick rabbit.
In detail about the prevention of coccidiosis
Everyone knows the expression that it is easier to prevent a disease than to treat it. The same goes for coccidiosis. Since rabbit young animals are at risk, it is worth taking care that infection does not occur. To do this, you need the following:
- Do not exceed the norm of the density of the content of young animals, the maximum number of rabbits in one cage is 20-25 individuals.
- Do not forget to periodically disinfect the room with rabbits, carefully process the cages and aviaries. It is worth remembering that coccidia are extremely resistant to external stimuli. For this reason, it is best to give preference to treatment with hot steam or a blowtorch.
- For sick animals, quarantine should be organized as soon as possible to prevent the further spread of coccidiosis.
- Organize the feeding so that the stool does not get into the feed or compound feed.
- Make sure that the water in the drinkers is always clean and fresh.
- Rabbit nutrition should be balanced and nutritious.
- It is also allowed to carry out drug prophylaxis with iodine or the use of antibiotics (Solikoks and Baitril), which were previously described in detail. Moreover, the course of these drugs should be repeated every month, the only way to protect the rabbit from possible infection and calmly breed rabbits.
As for the vaccine or vaccination against coccidiosis, it currently does not exist, although scientists do not stop working on this problem.