How to cause flowering in an apple tree
When growing apple trees, gardeners are faced with a lack of fruiting. You can make an apple fruit if you eliminate the factors that impede the process of flowering and fruit formation. There are many reasons why a fruit tree does not produce crops, and they are associated with improper care, poor agricultural practices, and disease and pest damage.
How to cause flowering in an apple tree
There are several reasons why the apple tree does not bear fruit and does not even bloom. Let's consider each in more detail.
Age of culture
Sometimes gardeners in anticipation of the first fruits do not take into account the age of the tree. Remember that young seedlings do not have to produce crops at all yet. This is especially true of varieties obtained from vaccination on a strong stock.
Achieving 5 years of age is not enough for apples to appear.
Most often, the beginning of flowering and fruiting of apple trees occurs from 6 years old, and sometimes only to 8 years of life.
Features characteristic of a single variety sometimes have a significant effect on the time of the onset of flowering and fruiting stages.
Late produce fruits of the variety Aly, Suislepskoe, Anis, Sunny.
Sometimes gardeners, when growing varieties planted with strong stocks, are faced with the fact that they fade, but they do not give a crop. This is called trial flowering.
All varietal varieties of fruit crops are intended for cultivation in certain climatic zones.
A tree that is not adapted to a particular region will not bear fruit at all or will produce few apples, trying to cope with adaptation to inappropriate conditions for it.
Very often, gardeners in the northern regions of Russia try to grow late-ripening varieties on heavy soils. In such conditions, the crop is received only 10-11 years after planting.
The features of some varieties is the fruiting cycle, i.e. trees bloom and yield crops not annually, but with an interval (usually 1 year).
Among these varieties are Grushovka, Antonovka, Medunitsa, Korichnoye, etc.
Lack of pollinators
If the apple orchard grows in a windy zone, most likely, the number of pollinators to set fruit will not be enough.
Planting in the northern part of the southern varieties, in which the inflorescences are weak and should be pollinated in a short period, also badly affects the activity of the formation of ovaries and fruits and leads to the fact that they bloom, but do not have time to pollinate and do not bring apples.
The excessive amount of ovaries formed prevents the subsequent formation and ripening of fruits.
It is worth paying special attention to this process on young apple trees, removing overload from branches. A weak seedling often does not withstand active fruiting and will begin to limit the number of ovaries for the next season.
You need to land at the correct depth
Among the most common reasons why an apple tree may not bear fruit is a violation of agricultural technology during planting.
- When the root neck is deepened to a great depth or, conversely, when the roots remain on the soil surface, the tree’s nutrition process is disturbed and it does not receive enough elements and water for full development. The roots of an improperly planted tree rot or freeze, and the fruit crop does not lay buds.
- When planting in an excessively dark place or in heavy and infertile soil with closely passing groundwater, the tree will not be able to grow and develop normally.
- Apple trees are planted not only in spring, but also in the canopy. However, autumn terms are not suitable for all varieties (you need to pay attention to this before buying), you should also take into account the quality of the purchased seedling: weakened should be kept until spring, otherwise it will not survive the winter cold.
Mechanical damage to branches when leaving or damage in winter from frost pits become obstacles for the timely onset of the flowering and fruiting stage.
Wounds draw forces to restore the tree bark, and the injuries themselves are barriers to the supply of food to the ovaries.
Defeat by Diseases and Pests
The defeat of fruit crops by pests and diseases is a common cause of a violation of its development. So:
- apple blossoms and weevils are able to destroy up to 80% of the buds and ovaries;
- powdery mildew, peronosporosis, fruit rot and black cancer are fungal diseases that lead to sterility of apple trees.
Pests insects become sources of wounds on the tree bark, which act as foci of penetration of pathogens. Spreading along with the plant juice in the cellular composition, infections lead to the death of inflorescences and ovaries.
Pruning has a direct impact on the formation of fruits:
- excessively cut branches will spend all their strength to recover and grow new shoots, while delaying the beginning of flowering;
- a neglected apple tree at the initial stage will begin to bloom and give a good harvest, but over the years a large number of branches will delay food and it will not be enough for the development of apples.
Overabundance and lack of mineral nutrition
The main thing is not to overdo it with nitrogen
An excess of nutrition, especially an overdose of nitrogen, leads to an active buildup of green mass and a delay in the appearance of fruit buds and inflorescences.
When nitrogen-containing complexes are introduced in violation of the terms, for example, feeding apple trees in late summer or already in autumn, when spring comes, they begin to fatten.
At the same time, at the stage of flowering and fruit formation, trees may lack nutrition. A lack of iron, potassium and phosphorus also causes a delay. Yellowing leaves will tell you about the lack of these elements.
Other possible factors
Branch growth direction
The growth of branches in the vertical direction is one of the reasons for the lack of harvest, because inflorescences and fruits are formed only on horizontally growing fruit-bearing shoots.
It is possible to correct this situation by hanging the load on the branches. You can wait for the first harvest after such a procedure in 2-3 years.
Watering is rarely required for trees, but in conditions of a protracted hot season, it becomes necessary, because the lack of sufficient water can also cause a delay in flowering and fruiting of the apple tree.
Young seedlings under the age of 2 years are watered 20-30 liters, adults 3-5 years old - 50-80 liters each, older than 5 years old - 100 liters per tree.
The so-called return frosts, which often happen in the spring, are another non-standard reason. A sharp decrease in temperature during active dissolution of the kidneys leads to damage.
Making the apple tree bear fruit
The optimal distance at which the upper root is located is 2-3 cm from the surface of the earth. When it is not observed, sprinkle the root with soil (if it is located higher) or dig it up a little (when it is too deep). Young seedlings, planted too deep, transplant higher.
If possible, young apple trees that grow in an unsuitable place for normal development - too dark or in the area of groundwater passage - are subject to transplantation.
Planting garden flowers attracting pollinating insects allows improving the quality of pollination. At the stage of active flowering, pesticides that have a detrimental effect on bees and other pollinating insects are not used.
You need to feed depending on the age of the tree
When feeding trees, it is worth considering that nitrogen-containing complexes are required only for young growing seedlings.
Nitrogen in the form of manure, bird droppings, ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate contribute to the fruit crop only in the spring.
When a young apple tree enters the stage of active fruiting, fertilizing with nitrogen is stopped, leaving only potassium-phosphorus fertilizers. Midsummer is the right time for this.
Treatments against diseases and pests
Timely treatments help protect trees from pests and diseases so that they do not become one of the reasons for stopping flowering and loss of yield:
- against insects they use insecticides and mechanical traps, for example, hunting belts, while pesticides are used during the opening of the buds and at the end of flowering;
- against fungal diseases, the apple orchard is treated with fungicides, avoiding procedures during flowering.
Trimming and rationing ovaries
To restore fruiting in order to rejuvenate and normalize the number of ovaries, pruning is performed:
- remove dried, old and damaged branches;
- cut off crossed and abnormally growing processes;
- short shoots, originating from the main branches, are shortened to the base.
Trimming the shoots is required for 2/3 of the length. Named so you can get the highest yield.
Be careful: you can not cut fruiting branches.
When normalizing the number of ovaries from each bundle, only the central, strongest one is left.
To limit too intensive fruiting, spraying helps:
- soda (300 g per 10 liters of water);
- chloramide (150 g per 10 l of water).
After processing, apples will be tied, but not all, but the harvest will be larger.
If the apple tree does not have enough iron, the folk method with rusty nails helps to make it fruit. Them:
- drive into an apple trunk (2 pcs per tree are enough);
- instilled in the trunk circle in different places around the perimeter.
Instead of nails, some gardeners use old tin cans.
Return frost protection
To protect the apple trees from spring back frosts, sprinkling and smoke help.
- Smoke can save fruit crops if the temperature drops below -4 ° C. Using a bonfire, a cloud of smoke is created that warms the tree and protects the kidneys from freezing.
- Raining is used before the onset of frost. At night, the fruit crop is irrigated with water, which will begin to evaporate when the temperature drops. By heating the air.
Banding helps speed up the process and increase the number of kidney buds in a young fruit culture aged 5-7 years, for which a ring of copper or aluminum wire with a diameter of 2-3 mm is tightened around the trunk in June, the string should slightly cut into the tree bark.
Such manipulation is aimed at creating a barrier to lowering nutrients from the leaves to the roots, as a result of which the tree directs them to the buds.
The wire ring is removed at the end of the season.
A number of factors influence the activity of flowering and fruiting of the apple tree. As a result of improper agricultural technology and improper care, you can lose the crop.
If the fruit-setting process has stopped, I urgently need to find out the cause of the situation and begin to act.