How to boil mushrooms
In autumn, it’s time to pickle mushrooms, first of all, mushrooms. Most often they are salted in a hot way. With such salting, the most critical step is the cooking of the buns.
How to boil mushrooms
In addition, to cook real, that is, white breasts, it is necessary before frying them.
What are these mushrooms
Mushrooms are edible mushrooms of the family Russula. The scientific name is “real breast”, and there are many popular names: white, wet, raw, pravsky.
It can not only be salted, but also fried. It is not particularly common, it forms mycorrhiza with birch.
However, there are many very similar, conditionally edible species that grow not at all near birches. Among them: a pile of yellow, aspen, pepper and others. It is not recommended to fry them, but salting for the winter is possible.
Many people do not distinguish between separate species, so often on sale you can find in the same basket, along with an edible real muffle, conditionally edible, outwardly very similar. Therefore, not being a specialist mycologist, it is better to process and prepare all instances as is customary for conditionally edible mushrooms.
Ways of preparation
There are 2 ways to harvest for the winter:
- cold salting;
- salting is hot.
Hot salting is a more reliable way for conditionally edible mushrooms in general, including mushrooms.
Heat treatment will destroy not only microorganisms, but also denature proteins (violate the structure of their macromolecules) in the pulp of the fungus, so boiled mushrooms are guaranteed to lose an unpleasant smell and taste of bitterness. In addition, they turn out soft, but they do not lose their shape.
The following types of containers are suitable:
- wooden barrel;
- glass container (jar) with a wide neck;
- spacious ceramic pot for food;
- enameled, without coating defects - chips, pan.
It is important that the breasts are salted in a cold way under oppression and with good air intake, as usual, salted cabbage, because Under these conditions, anaerobic microorganisms (botulism sticks) do not multiply.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
Before embarking on the cold method of salting the mushrooms, you need to really assess all the risks if you did not pick the mushrooms yourself, but simply bought them on the market. Therefore, it is better to refuse such an option, and use blank options based on heat treatment of the original product.
If it is salted hot, it is necessary to choose the dishes so that it can be placed in a cold place. If such a place would be a refrigerator, a wooden barrel is hardly suitable: it is better to stock up with a wide-necked glass jar.
Dishes, including the lid to it, should be well washed and sterilized.
Mushrooms must be cleaned before cooking.
Preparing the breasts for decoction is a long and rather laborious process. It includes:
- manual cleaning of each specimen from visible lumps of earth, blades of grass, other foreign particles (old, as well as damaged mushrooms touched by worms, are not suitable for pickling);
- soaking in cold water in a spacious container (basin, bath) for several hours (preferably a day), and the water needs to be changed periodically;
- thorough washing of each fungus in clean water (some even recommend using a toothbrush for these purposes);
- removal of long legs;
- large hats can (but not necessarily) be cut into slices.
With prolonged soaking, the breasts may darken. This is usually due to the fact that they are not completely immersed in water. Therefore, the mushrooms must be washed and soaked again in new water. But put a load on top so that all of them are under a layer of water.
Ingredients and their quantity
For each kilogram of mushrooms you need to take:
- 60 g of non-iodized coarse salt;
- 3 dill umbrellas;
- 10-15 leaves of blackcurrant;
- 4-5 cloves of garlic;
- 1-2 pcs. bay leaf;
- 10-15 peas of black pepper.
Attention! Dill, garlic, bay leaves and currant leaves should be well washed and scalded with boiling water.
The water in the pan must be heated, put in it 2 tbsp. l salt, and then carefully transfer prepared mushrooms into the water. Bring to a boil and boil at a good boil for 20 minutes. It is necessary to precisely withstand time in order to achieve good sterilization and, at the same time, do not digest the mushrooms until their natural structure is lost.
The foam generated during cooking should be removed with a spoon.
After 20 minutes, the mushrooms are thrown into a colander. Salt water (brine) is stored.
White mushrooms are cooked similarly for frying: they are also soaked for a long time, then boiled for the same time. Only if boiling before salting pursues 2 goals (to remove bitterness and smell and sterilize the mushroom mass), then before the frying, it is necessary to achieve the disappearance of bitterness.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
- When boiling the mushrooms, so much water should be poured into the pan so that the mushrooms float in it freely and do not interfere (do not squeeze) each other. This can only be achieved by boiling in several passes or in using several pans.
- You can simply determine the readiness of boiled breasts: they sink to the bottom of the pan with shaking.
- Traditionally, the most delicious are billets made of mushrooms, where the mushrooms actually have no legs (1-1.5 cm remains). But you do not need to throw out the remains of the legs: they will make a wonderful mushroom caviar.
Modern housewives, unlike those who conducted the household in the 50s. prefers to preserve the milk in a hot way. Such blanks can be stored at a temperature of about + 20 ℃, i.e. almost at room. But in this case, the shelf life of mushrooms should not exceed 6 months.
The subsequent stages of hot salting
In sterilized dishes stacked in rows of breasts, placing the hats in one direction to get a dense stack. The rows are evenly shipped with prepared spices, and they are also sprinkled with an additional amount of salt (pinches) for better sterilization of the mushroom mass.
Attention! The stored brine is again brought to a boil: i.e. it should be boiled 2 times.
The muffins placed in the jar are gently poured with boiling brine to the very top of the dishes, even pouring through it to remove all possible air. Put on a plastic cover.
Please note. You can’t roll up cans! This is dangerous when it comes to mushrooms, especially conditionally edible.
Cans after cooling should be stored only in a cold place: in the basement or in the refrigerator.
There is no need to rush to try salting: let the set time pass ̶ at least 1.5 months. Mushroom mass is well salted, additional fermentation will take place in it, and if, more than aspirations, the salt becomes spoiled, then the signs of spoilage will become visible visually. Unfortunately, washing does not help ̶ spoiled salting will have to be thrown away.
However, if the mushrooms were carefully processed, properly boiled and stored in the cold, the salty breasts will turn out to be tasty and safe.