Home grown champignons

Mushroom farming is the fastest growing field of agriculture. The most attention is attracted by the cultivation of mushrooms, because this product is in higher demand in the market compared to other mushrooms. It is also important that the culture is breeding at home.

Home grown champignons

Description of champignons

Champignons belong to the genus lamellar. Their cultivation began more than VII centuries ago in France and Italy (translated from French, “champihnon” - mushroom). There are several varieties of such a culture. The people divide them into white, cream and brown. Cream (aka Royal) artificially removed at enterprises and farms. The remaining species are found in nature.

In the scientific understanding, mushrooms are divided according to the place of growth into forest, field, and herbophiles (grown on grass). Champignon is the most common mushroom in the world. Even children are familiar with the external features of the fruit bodies of the fungus:

  • the cap of the mushroom body has a dense structure, spherical, its diameter is 4-10 cm;
  • the surface of the cap is covered with small scales;
  • on the inside of the hat the surface is brown, lamellar;
  • the leg is flat, from 1 to 6 cm in height;
  • the color of the pulp is white (pink may be present).

In nature, culture propagates vegetatively - spore propagation, as well as the division of fungal mycelium. The first is most often used to grow champignons on industrial farms. The second - for mushroom cultivation at home, on the site (in the garden), in a greenhouse, garage or basement.

The mushroom is a saprotroph; therefore, it loves humus-rich fertile land. It also grows on anthills and tree bark. Most grow in the absence of vegetation.

In culinary use, the mushroom is universal. It is suitable for mushroom dishes, as well as a component of any first and second. They are even used to make desserts.

The benefits and harms of the product

Champignon is not inferior in its useful properties to other varieties of mushrooms. It is rich in proteins, beneficial amino acids and carotenoids. The composition of the fruiting body includes hundreds of substances of organic and inorganic origin that are useful to the human body. Champignon contains a large amount of vitamins (C, D, H, E, etc.), phosphorus, iodine, calcium and magnesium.

Mushrooms contain substances similar in action to antibiotics, so its use is common not only in cooking, but also in folk medicine. Experts are confident that the use of mushrooms contributes to the destruction of hundreds of species of bacteria, the most dangerous of which are salmonella and Koch's wand.

The use of mycelium has a positive effect on the intestinal flora and has a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system. It also has other useful properties:

  • improves appetite;
  • slows down the aging process;
  • removes radionuclides and toxins;
  • counteracts inflammatory processes;
  • has an antioxidant effect.

The fungus is harmless to humans. It should be used with caution only for children under the age of 5 years, pregnant women, women during lactation, with acute diseases of the digestive system. It is also harmful to eat fruit with gout.

Industrial mushroom cultivation

Mushroom farming is a young agricultural industry. Mycelium began to grow on an industrial scale outside of Russia. On the shelves and shelves of domestic stores, products from foreign manufacturers were most often found. Today we have learned to grow champignons with us. Mushroom growing plants and farms are found in every region of the country.

The production of mycelium (growing champignons at home in the basement) is a profitable business. Its profitability is higher than other areas of agricultural activity. With the organization of all conditions, you can get a crop all year round. Only with an area of ​​5 m² it will be possible to collect up to 200 kg of fruits per year. All that is needed is to organize conditions favorable for the reproduction and development of fruiting bodies.

Provide optimal conditions for mushrooms to grow.

The process of growing champignons is simple. The mycelium is kept in special boxes with soil mounted on racks, or grown in bags. The growth and development of culture depends on the availability and quality of ventilation equipment, thermoregulation and irrigation systems. There are also automated installations, the use of which excludes human labor in caring for mycelium.

The benefits of growing mushrooms at home

If a person’s goal is not to open his own champignon plant, but he wants to cultivate it, it will not be difficult to grow champignons at home. The easiest way for beginners to grow champignons in the house, on the windowsill of the balcony in their own apartment. The main advantage of this breeding is that you do not need to look for a room for growing champignons. A person can collect a bucket of delicious and healthy mushrooms without leaving home.

Having studied all the features of growing a culture, they proceed to the next stage: create a mycelium on a personal plot, in a garden, greenhouse or basement. Such mushroom cultivation at home is suitable for the owners of a house in the village, cottages, etc. Use any room where it will be convenient to use a set of agrotechnical measures in an attempt to cultivate a culture that is beneficial for beginning entrepreneurs.

Growing champignons at home has no drawbacks. The costs of equipment and premises are minimal and quickly pay off, the crop is constant, it is received most of the year, even in winter.

Wanting to grow champignon mushrooms at home, take into account other advantages of this profitable business:

  • to grow champignon mushrooms from scratch will turn out both to residents of cities and villages;
  • to start the cultivation of mushrooms, does not require a large starting capital;
  • champignon cultivation technology is simple;
  • any room is suitable, from the barn and cellar to the garage and hangar;
  • Products are in high demand.

The only thing taken into account is the need for a lot of time. Caring for a crop takes most of the day and is suitable only for those who do not have a permanent job. Automation of the process (even the simplest set of equipment from the irrigation and lighting system) will cost a novice entrepreneur a considerable amount.

Basement cultivation

Growing champignons in the basement has the same nuances as methods of cultivating mycelium on a street bed or on a balcony. We will have to prepare a suitable place for the maintenance of culture, as well as take care of the climatic indicators in the room. Careful care of mushrooms will allow you to get tall fruiting bodies in less than 3 months from the start of work.

Mycelium loves moisture and coolness, so mushroom pickers often choose culture in the cellar. The room already has a natural ventilation system installed, which will expedite preparatory activities.

There are other requirements for the basement:

  • The floor must be concrete.
  • You will have to install a lighting device for the convenience of finding a person in the cellar.
  • Deviations from temperature (15 ° С-17 ° С) and humidity (65-80%) are solved by installing electrical equipment: air conditioners, air humidifiers, etc.

Use the method of growing the product in boxes mounted on racks or bags. Germination is produced in compost.

Preparation of the nutrient medium

Mushroom yield depends on soil quality

To grow quality champignons at home, take care of creating suitable conditions for the product. The substrate for growing champignons is a nutrient medium of the mycelium in the first weeks of its life. Without it, you will not have to wait for the appearance of fruiting bodies in the garden. There are different options for the nutrient medium for such mushrooms, from a mixture of chicken manure with alabaster and ordinary manure to the use of coffee and coconut.

The most profitable at home is to abandon the expensive components of the substrate and opt for a simple mixture. Planting mycelium is produced in a substrate consisting of:

  • manure (200 kg);
  • straw (5 kg);
  • urea (0.5 kg);
  • ammonium sulfate (0.8 kg);
  • superphosphate (0.5 kg);
  • chalk (0.75 kg).

Compost filled with water is poured into the boxes. It is better to lay straw and manure in layers, allowing each layer to infuse for 4-5 days. With an increase in volume, compost is mixed, introducing urea, superphosphate and other additives.

The planting of the mycelium is carried out after the unpleasant ammonia odor disappears. It takes up to 30 days. This technology of obtaining a nutrient medium is the safest and gives more chances for success in growing crops.

Receiving and applying mycelium

When the compost for growing champignons is ready, you will have to get planting material - mushroom mycelium. It represents small pieces of fruit tissue. The mushroom picker has 2 ways to get it: purchase it in a specialized store or grow it yourself. It is produced in the form of a granular composition. Each granule contains spores that, when certain conditions are created, multiply, forming a cobweb of the mycelium, and later the fruiting body itself.

Getting mycelium on your own is a difficult task. Material is taken only from a sterile mycelium, germinated in a strict temperature and humidity. Any deviation from the indicators threatens the inefficiency of the procedure.

Cereal mycelium is planted in the same way as ordinary cereal. It is deepened into the compost by 3-4 cm and waiting for the appearance of the mushroom cobweb. Further important care measures will be ventilation, watering, temperature and humidity control.

Growing in the garden and in the greenhouse

Growing champignons in bags (in the cellar) can be done by a novice mushroom picker. Breeding culture on the street will also not create problems. The technological process differs from the previous one, but the main feature remains unchanged - the mycelium on compost sprouts.

Mushrooms are rarely planted on a bed in an open ground, since it is difficult to organize conditions of high humidity without the use of film greenhouses. Use this method better for people living in the southern regions, where even at night there are no large temperature differences. Mycelium is planted in beds with a distance of 1.5 m from each other, only in fertile soil fertilized with manure.

Often, attempts to grow mushrooms in open ground without the use of hotbeds fail, so it’s better to stay on the option that is beneficial for the landlord: plant mushrooms not in the garden, but in the greenhouse. Any type of construction is suitable: glass, plastic, film, polycarbonate. The main thing is to protect the mycelium from direct sunlight.

Instructions for the manufacture of the substrate include the following components:

  • straw or grass (20 kg);
  • manure (10 kg);
  • gypsum (0.5 kg);
  • urea (50 g);
  • superphosphate (50 g);
  • water (50-60 l).

A standard recipe of straw, manure, urea, chalk and superphosphate is also used. The substrate is laid out over the entire surface of the soil in the greenhouse. It is aged 3 days, after which the mycelium is planted. A sterile glove kit is required for planting to prevent infection.

Mushrooms are easy to grow

Detailed instructions for the next steps:

  • Grain mycelium is planted staggered at a distance of 35-40 cm from each other. Do a deepening of 4-5 cm.
  • Waiting for the appearance of the cobweb of the mycelium (10-15 days). At the same time, they organize daily ventilation of the greenhouse and irrigation of the beds.
  • With the advent of filaments of the mycelium, the beds are covered with peat and dolomite crumbs (3: 1). Also use turf land. The covering layer is 4-5 cm.
  • After laying the fertile layer, reduce the frequency of ventilation.

After 7-10 days, reduce the humidity in the greenhouse by airing it. The best indicator is 65-70%. If everything is done correctly, the crop is harvested after 7-10 days.

Features of planting care

For intensive growth, the culture provides ideal conditions. Compost gives strength to mushrooms only in the initial stages. Further they need fertile land. When seedlings appear, an additional layer of soil is laid in the boxes: peat or loam.

The substrate for growing champignons is moistened with warm, settled water. The previously held high temperature of 22 ° C-24 ° C is reduced to an indicator of 15 ° C-17 ° C. The beds are irrigated daily, not forgetting the need to maintain the humidity level in the room (65-85%) and good supply and exhaust ventilation.

In boxes containing mycelium, keep clean. In conditions of high humidity and high temperature, the risk of the spread of harmful microorganisms increases. To prevent their appearance by chemical methods of exposure is difficult and dangerous to health. It is better to use ozone gas surface treatment technology. It will also help extend the shelf life of finished products.

If everything is done correctly, it will be possible to collect the first crop in 3 months from the start of compost preparation. It is also important to collect mushrooms from the garden correctly: they are not cut, but carefully twisted. The place where the mycelium previously grew is sprinkled with soil.

Careful attitude to the planted mycelium allows you to harvest up to 8 times a year.

Growing mushrooms in the apartment (on the balcony)

If it is not possible to plant mushrooms in a farm or on a garden plot, grow mushrooms at home.

To grow champignons, suitable conditions for the development of mycelium are organized. The balcony or loggia is insulated. To create the necessary climatic conditions, ordinary electrical appliances are installed there: an exhaust hood and an air humidifier.

Mushroom ripening is also produced on composts in specially constructed crates. The culture is also kept in bags. People with many years of cultivation of mycelium determined the most favorable composition of the substrate for fungi. Use a nutrient mixture of:

  • straw (10 kg);
  • chicken droppings (15 kg);
  • alabaster (8 kg);
  • urea and superphosphate (200 g each).

The substrate is moistened with warm water and placed in boxes. Ordinary moss also has a beneficial effect on crop growth. The soil is kept for 3 weeks, after which the mushrooms are planted. For this, seeds are used, they are deepened by 4-5 cm. The seed consumption is 300-350 g per 1 m².

When the first stage of planting is completed, seedlings are waiting for the appearance. It will take 8-14 days. The surface of the substrate is covered with a peat layer of 4 cm. Chalk is often added there in a ratio of 1:10.

After 14-15 days, the temperature is changed to an indicator of 17 ° C. Organize systematic watering and monitor air humidity. It should not fall below 60%.

If a person adheres to all conditions for growing champignons, he will receive the first crop of tasty and healthy mushrooms in 60-70 days.

Conclusion

Growing champignons at home is easy. The main thing is to create favorable conditions for their maintenance. Seeds germinate on a special substrate, grow intensively on fertile soil. If you organize high air humidity and keep the temperature within 15 ° C-17 ° C, the first crop will ripen in 2 weeks.

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