Growing tomatoes

To get a high yield from a plant, it is important to know all the subtleties of agricultural technology. How to organize the natural cultivation of tomatoes? Consider how to care for tomatoes.

Growing tomatoes

Conditions for development

To achieve maximum return on the plant, it is not enough just to dig the seeds into the ground. There are conditions under which a culture grows well and bears fruit. Ignoring these factors has negative consequences.

Temperature

It is necessary to grow tomatoes at a certain temperature. The air should be warmed up to 23 ° C during the day, and at least 17 ° C at night. If the heat drops to 13 ° C, the plant poorly assimilates nutrients from the soil and liquid. This condition is especially dangerous in cloudy weather: lack of lighting and cold can quickly destroy the landing.

Seedlings are threatened by return frosts, which often occur after planting in open ground. At first, it is better to cover the bushes with polyethylene at night. It is preferable to measure the soil with a conventional thermometer. If the earth warms up to 10 ° C, you can start work.

It should be grown in heat, but heat is just as dangerous as cold. At temperatures above 35 ° C, leaf decay begins, the pollen becomes barren. In a sweltering heat, plantations are obscured by light tissue, scattering aggressive sunlight.

Plot

When growing tomatoes in open ground, it is advised to choose the southern or southeastern parts of the garden. A good result will be shown by plants developing near the bushes or the fence from the netting. The culture is poorly grown in soil with high acidity, so in the fall it is advised to deoxidize the soil with lime - 500 g per 1 sq. Km. m

According to the rules for growing tomatoes, you can’t plant tomatoes and related plants (peppers, eggplant, potatoes) in one place for more than 2 years in a row. If crop rotation is disturbed every year, the culture gradually degenerates. The best predecessors are:

  • cabbage;
  • onion;
  • zucchini;
  • cucumbers.

A plot for tomatoes must be prepared in the fall. The earth is carefully dug up, weeds are removed, after which the soil is mixed with fertilizers. For 1 square. 5 kg of organics and 50 g of superphosphate must be added. In the spring, after loosening, 40 g of nitrogen preparations are added.

How to plant

How to plant tomatoes properly? One of the most affordable technologies is the seedling method. For several weeks, plants develop in room conditions, after which they are planted in open ground or a greenhouse. During this period, the bushes have time to grow up, and the temperature outside becomes suitable.

Seed preparation

To grow early tomatoes, you must pre-soak the seeds in a growth stimulator, and then leave on a napkin for germination. Then prepare containers for planting - seedlings or peat pots. Inside, drainage and a mixture of nutrient soil, compost are poured. Seeds are planted to a depth of 2 cm. The thicker the layer of earth, the longer the plant sprouts.

Tatyana Orlova (candidate of agricultural sciences):

Seeds on sale are already treated with growth stimulants or a disinfectant. To warn about this, a special bright dye is introduced into such compositions. Such "colored" seeds should not be soaked in water or a growth stimulant.

After the work is completed, sprayed from above with a spray bottle and cover with polyethylene. The containers are placed in a bright, warm place for a period of 4 to 20 days. After what time do tomatoes grow in the greenhouse? Duration of biting depends on the quality of the seeds and suitable conditions. Optimum culture wakes up at a temperature of 22 ° C.

After the emergence of the shoots, the shelter is removed and the heat is reduced to 18 ° C. During this period, the agrarian is required regular cultivation of the land and moderate watering. Recommended daylight hours must be increased to 14 hours a day. Before planting in open ground, seedlings are gradually accustomed to low temperatures over the course of a week.

Dive

When transplanting, part of the root must be cut

When growing tomato seedlings, one should not forget about the dive procedure. After 3 true leaves appear at the seedlings, it is necessary to transplant into a larger container. When picking, the strongest bushes are selected, and the rest are thrown away.

Gently pull the seedling out of the pot, being careful not to damage the roots and stalk. Farmers recommend using a teaspoon for this purpose, which they dig a plant with a lump of earth. After the operation, tomatoes quickly become stronger and more durable.

Tatyana Orlova (candidate of agricultural sciences):

This technique is called picking because they use a sharp wooden stick - peak to dig plants.

The second procedure is relevant if the seedlings have grown, and before planting in open ground for a long time. The bushes are pulled out of containers, cut part of the root and planted again. The plant begins to spend energy not on building tops, but on the restoration of underground parts.

Landing rules

The site is pre-excavated, after which a place is formed according to the scheme:

  • between the bushes - 50 cm;
  • between rows - 60 cm;
  • between the beds - 70 cm.

If you plant crops at such a distance, they will be able to receive moisture in the quantity necessary for normal growth and development.

Tatyana Orlova (candidate of agricultural sciences):

The planting pattern of tomato plants depends on the variety. As a rule, early ripe (and even more so super early ripening) varieties are small in size. They are planted according to the scheme 50 x 30 cm - 50 cm - the distance between the rows, 30 cm - the distance between the bushes in a row. Large-fruited varieties are planted according to the planting scheme of 70 x 35 - 40 cm.

Growing tomatoes requires compliance with the following rules: planting in a checkerboard pattern. The depth of the holes on average is 40 cm, although it all depends on the development of the root system in seedlings. In addition to the plant, there will be a drainage layer and a fertilizer pillow in the hole. The bushes are carefully pulled out of the containers, being careful not to damage the lower parts. When planted with seeds, the material is deepened into the soil by 2 cm.

Before agricultural work, the wells are watered with hot water: this way it is possible not only to saturate the soil with the moisture necessary for development, but also to heat the ground. After planting at a constant place of growth, seedlings from frost for the night are covered with polyethylene.

Fancy Growing Methods

There are many interesting technologies that allow tomatoes for open ground to grow even better. Each gardener selects new and original methods that are suitable specifically for his needs.

In bags

What if the plot is too small for growing tomatoes? Mobile beds are one of the easiest ways to get a crop of delicious vegetables at home. Designs can be placed in any convenient place, controlling the lighting and temperature next to them. When cultivating in bags, you do not need to worry about the quality of the land, because the agrarian prepares the soil mixture at his discretion.

For the construction of beds you will need strong bulk bags (from under the croup or for construction waste) of 50 liters. In order for the water to drain well, it is necessary to cut the corners and make additional drain holes along the bottom. New bags are filled with layers:

  • drainage (broken bricks, vermiculite, sand);
  • compost
  • nutrient land.

Humus occupies more than 50% of the bed, so there is no need to feed the plants throughout the entire vegetative period. A rope is pulled over mobile structures: it will act as a trellis. The top is tucked, and for support, wooden sticks are inserted into each package.

Seedlings are planted in 2 bushes in one container. The earth is pre-moistened, after which they make holes and fix the culture.

Recommendations

Secrets of growing tomatoes:

  • Watering. The water in the polyethylene dries slowly, so it is necessary to control the humidity and prevent acidification or drying of the soil. In regions where it is constantly hot in summer, the irrigation procedure is repeated every 3 days.
  • Loosening. Good aeration is the key to normal growth.
  • Garter. By fixing the stem on the trellis, it will be possible to protect the structure from overturning.

As the bushes develop, fresh soil is added, covering the bare roots. After the crop is harvested, the used soil is discarded. The bags will last more than one year, but before the next landing, it is necessary to decontaminate the polyethylene.

Warm bed

You can independently make warm beds for seedlings

If growing tomatoes in the open field is problematic, it is worth trying to organize the designs in heated drawers. To do this, the boards are assembled in the form of boxes, the width of which is at least 45 cm. The length can be any, allowing you to use the entire space.

Broken bricks are laid at the bottom of the structures, and after - a layer of humus and nutritious earth. A thick layer of compost completes the pie. Organic residues prey and heat the soil, as a result of which a warm bed creates ideal conditions for the development of plants in cool regions. Such crops are not afraid of frost, exhibit amazing characteristics of germination and vitality.

When growing tomatoes in boxes, you need to organize reliable tying. Bushes grow rapidly, so trellis is needed. To do this, pull the rope over the boxes or install arch brackets. For the winter, constructions are covered with plant debris and covered with a film - by spring, the bed is ready for reuse.

Upside down

If industrial, professional cultivation of tomatoes in the open field is not required, you can experiment with hanging beds. Pots are located anywhere on the site, they do not need any specific care. Tomatoes are planted upside down, which is why plants are drawn to the light, growing and forming more ovaries.

When cultivating inverted form, you need to select the appropriate capacity, otherwise the roots will have little room for normal development. For this, buckets or water bottles are suitable, the volume of which is at least 5 liters. For planting in smaller pots take compact varieties of delicious vegetables.

For the garden, several holes are made: one at the bottom (for seedlings, 6 cm in diameter) and three at the top (for fastenings). Inside the structure, a nutrient mixture is poured: soil and compost. The bush is planted in the hole, after which the container is suspended at a constant place of growth.

C is upside down. When watering, water flows to the ground, so it is necessary to protect the site from dirty liquid. It is recommended to place the containers on the sunny side of the garden.

How to care

Knowing all about the features of growing tomatoes in open ground, you can prevent the occurrence of problems at the initial level. Tomatoes are unpretentious to care for, but they need to ensure the conditions under which they will produce high yields.

Irrigation

Watering is one of the most important components on which the health of a crop depends. Tomatoes are very temperature sensitive and can hurt from a cold liquid. Before the procedure, water is necessarily heated or a liter of boiling water is added to the watering can. When caring for tomatoes in open ground, irrigation is carried out in the morning or after sunset.

If watering is done from a hose, the stream is sent between the beds. The earth must not be allowed to erode and the roots are exposed. In case of a problem, it is necessary to pour fresh soil under the trunk.

Sprinkling is undesirable for the crop: the plants fall flowers, which negatively affects the volume and timing of the crop. A sharp increase in humidity is an excellent environment for the development of fungal diseases.

Watering tomatoes is carried out as the earth dries. Be sure to irrigate after planting in the soil, before flowering and before the formation of fruits. From the appearance of the ovaries and until ripening, it is necessary to maintain a constant humidity of the coma. A sharp drop can cause cracking of tomatoes or activate root rot. The hotter the air temperature on the plantation, the more often and more plentiful the procedures should be.

Top dressing

Plants need periodic fertilizer

The key to a rich harvest is the timely application of fertilizers. Activities are carried out throughout the growing season, starting from 10 days after hatching from the seeds. Earlier feeding is dangerous for the plant. The seedlings have not yet formed a root system, and a chemical solution in any concentration can cause burns. The culture will not die, but it will hurt for a long time.

The amount of application depends on the nutritional value of the land and the conditions for growing tomatoes. On poor soils, seedlings are supported by both root dressing and leaf fertilizers. There are four basic procedures for outdoor use:

  • 2 weeks after disembarkation;
  • before flowering;
  • during the formation of ovaries;
  • during the ripening of the crop.

For the entire growing season, farmers are advised to conduct at least 8 events. It is better to alternate root and leaf treatments. The last procedure is carried out 2 weeks before harvesting, otherwise nitrates will remain in the fruits. Do not exceed recommended concentration of substances. With an excess of fertilizers, the culture can get vertex rot or late blight.

When growing tomatoes in open ground, watering and application are carried out simultaneously. The alternation of organic and mineral preparations will allow you to get the most out of any grade. During the ripening period, it is better to reduce nitrogen-containing products: they increase the formation of tops to the detriment of the fruits.

Loosening and hilling

After rain or watering, the soil crust is necessarily broken. This procedure helps maintain fluid at the roots and improves the aeration of underground parts. The first manipulations on them are best done after planting seedlings in open ground, the following is repeated after 2 weeks. Along with loosening in rows, weeds are destroyed.

In order for the plant to form additional roots, it is necessary to sprinkle the lower part of the stem with fresh soil. Hilling helps the crop produce nutrients over a larger area, which positively affects crop yields. The first procedures are carried out 14 days after disembarkation, after the same period of time the action is repeated.

Tying

No matter how strong the stalk of a tomato is, however, as the fruit grows and develops, it can break. Fixation on the trellis will facilitate care and protect the culture from diseases arising from contact with the ground. Where the bushes do not lie on the ground, the crop ripens quickly and simultaneously.

For tying use both a rope and specially assembled structures (arches, caps, cages). The procedure begins 21 days after transplanting seedlings in open ground. During one season, the stem is fixed to the support at least 5 times. The quantity depends on the tomato variety and growth rate.

Plants are tied with twine or cloth cut into strips. It is forbidden to use fishing line, wire: artificial material roughly cuts into the soft tissue of the culture, which can cause the death of the bush. Before the procedure, it is advised to disinfect the raw materials with any fungicide.

Tatyana Orlova (candidate of agricultural sciences):

A special garter material for plants is currently on sale in the form of a ribbon wound around a small bobbin. The tape is made of non-woven fabric such as Agrospan or Spanbond, easily tears off the skein, but at the same time, when the garter is firmly fixed plants.

The lazy way of growing tomatoes involves fixing the seedlings to a long stake (from 2 to 2.5 m). The stick is buried in the ground, departing from the plant by 10 cm. The binding is done gradually, as the trunk develops. As a result, the vegetable stands in an upright position, like a tree. This technique facilitates care and maximally opens the fruits, allowing them to ripen quickly.

Stepson

It is advisable to do the stepsoning in the morning

In order for the plant to bear fruit well, you need to break off the shoots located in the axils of the leaves. If you leave stepchildren, branches and tomatoes will form from them, however, the abundance of ovaries draws nutrients from the vegetable, which causes the crop to become smaller. Highly overgrown tops are a great environment for fungi.

The first shoots competitors arise when floral brushes appear. All processes located in the nodules are removed. The procedure is carried out a couple of times a week, while the stepsons are small. The larger, older the bunch, the more painful the tomato tolerates the procedure.

Tatyana Orlova (candidate of agricultural sciences):

If among the tomato plants you have noticed “suspicious” specimens for the presence of any infectious diseases, then they should be planted last, so as not to pass the infection to healthy plants on your hands. After that, wash your hands with soap and water.

It is best to move the activities in the morning, so that in the evening the wounds have time to heal. It is advisable that this day be sunny. In cloudy weather, the cliff places are sprinkled with ash. In June, you can remove a couple of leaves under ripening fruits. Such manipulations open the access of the sun to the crop, which significantly reduces the time to harvest.

Disease

Tomatoes, the care and cultivation of which is accessible to beginners, can hardly be called a capricious culture. With proper agricultural technology, the bushes grow very quickly and practically do not get sick. But at the slightest error, ailments are activated, weakened plantings eat parasites.

Phytophthora

Fungal disease affects late varietal tomatoes, which bear fruit in July and August. На первых этапах начинается отмирание листьев, постепенно потемнение перемещается на ствол. На нижней части пластинок появляется мучнистый налет. В итоге ботва засыхает, а плоды покрываются бурыми пятнами.

Бороться с фитофторой необходимо при первых симптомах или подозрениях на них. Болезнь развивается очень быстро, постепенно переходит на здоровые кусты. Каждые 7 дней плантацию обрабатывают раствором любого фунгицида («Ридомил Голд», «Фитоспорин-М», «Фундазол»). Можно чередовать препараты, не давая грибку привыкнуть.

Gray rot

Если помидоры в открытом грунте выращивать в плотных посадках, есть вероятность возникновения опасного недуга. Условием активизации является повышенная влажность при температуре от 22°С до 30°С. Самый яркий симптом — это светло-коричневые пятна на листьях и стебле, переходящие в зрелые плоды.

Бороться с грибком надо при первых признаках его появления. Посадки опрыскивают любыми фунгицидами до полного исчезновения бурого покрытия. В качестве профилактики советуют обрабатывать растения на ранних стадиях развития.

Tatyana Orlova (candidate of agricultural sciences):

Все препараты для борьбы с грибными заболеваниями растений не излечивают их, а только останавливают болезнь. Поэтому, если какие-либо пятна появились на листьях, после применения фунгицида они не исчезнут. Просто должны появится новые здоровые листья.

Fusarium

Возникает при неправильном уходе за томатами. Причиной напасти становятся споры грибка, которые попадают от других растений или через зараженный семенной материал. Первым делом начинается увядание нижней листвы, после чего болезнь переходит на подземную и наземную части. Пластинки по краям становятся водянистыми или покрытыми белым налетом, корни сгнивают.

Фузариоз быстро поглощает здоровые кусты, поэтому необходимо приступать к опрыскиванию при малейших его симптомах. Многократная обработка фунгицидами помогает избавить посадки от напасти. К сожалению, заболевший саженец придется удалить, при массовом поражении спасти ничего не удастся.

Tatyana Orlova (candidate of agricultural sciences):

Фузариоз по другому называется фузариозное увядание. Выглядит на первых порах так, как будто растение испытывает острый дефицит воды. Листья вялые, опущены вниз. Огородники бросаются сразу же поливать такое «увядшее» растение. Но чем влажнее почва, тем сильнее развивается заболевание.

Harvesting

Уборка томатов с открытого грунта начинается в июне-июле и продолжается до первых заморозков. Помидоры краснеют, их снимают каждые 3 дня.

Лучшим периодом для сбора является утро: в это время плоды наливаются и приобретают хорошие вкусовые характеристики. Убирать надо в теплую погоду, когда на поверхности растения нет капель росы. Осенью важно успеть снять урожай до охлаждения воздуха, ведь при температуре 7°С томаты перестают созревать, а при морозе -4°С теряют лежкость.

Первым делом убирают плоды с дефектами, после чего приступают к оставшимся овощам. Перед отправлением на хранение, всю продукцию сортируют и перебирают. Бурые и зеленые плоды оставляют на дозревание, а спелые можно использовать. Незрелые помидоры покраснеют в течение 7-15 дней. На солнце и в теплом помещении процесс ускоряется до 5 суток.

Tatyana Orlova (candidate of agricultural sciences):

Плоды томата, снятые зелеными с растений, заболевших фитофторой не вызревают, сгнивают в лежке зелеными. Для предупреждения попадания спор фитофторы на зеленые плоды во время сбора с таких заболевших растений и их загнивания, такие плоды перед укладкой на хранение обливают горячей водой температурой 60-65 градусов. Время воздействия горячей воды должно быть не более нескольких секунд.

Теперь вы знаете о правилах выращивания томатов и о том, как нужно ухаживать за ними.

Recommended

Eggplant Roma F1
2019
Pepper Yeast
2019
Technology for growing cucumbers on the balcony
2019