Growing mountain pine Mugus
Shrub mountain pine Mugus (pinus mugo mughus) was bred in 1779 and has become widespread in the south and center of Europe. In the wild, this culture looks like a tree and is often found in the mountains along the forest peaks. Due to its good winter hardiness, this plant is grown in all regions of our country.
Growing mountain pine Mugus
Features of the needles
The description of the pine includes several unique qualities:
- the plant is tall - at the age of five it reaches 5 m in height;
- the crown is thick spherical or shapeless;
- creeping shoots;
- in the eighth year, the first cones appear, red or light brown in color, conical in shape;
- needles are short, collected in bundles of 2 pcs., up to 4 cm in length, emerald;
- life expectancy is from 5 to 8 years.
You can buy high-quality seedlings with all the features of the original variety in the Rosselkhoziturnik. The price depending on the height of the plant will be different:
- from 40 cm - 4000 rubles .;
- from 60 to 80 cm - 8000 rubles .;
- 1-1.5 m - 35500 rub.
The increased interest in this culture is caused by several positive points:
- good frost resistance;
- thanks to the powerful root system, the shrub is not afraid of winds;
- tolerates drought;
- not exposed to disease;
- successfully grows and develops on any type of soil;
- easy to recover after pruning;
- with good care and proper haircut, you can create a beautiful garden bonsai from this culture.
The best time for planting is mid-May in regions with a cool climate and the beginning of September in the southern zone of the country.
Preparing planting material
You can buy seedlings of this culture in a horticultural nursery, where varietal specimens with all the declared characteristics and qualities are sold.
When buying planting material, you should adhere to some rules.
- It is impossible to transplant pine trees with bare roots from one place to another, since they quickly die from drying out. It is better to choose seedlings with closed roots - plants in containers or with an earthen lump wrapped in burlap.
- The best are conifers aged 3 to 5 years.
- When buying, carefully inspect the aerial part for the presence of diseases, pests, cracks and breaks - it is better to refuse such.
- In healthy bushes, needles and shoots of uniform green color without red spots and mold.
A tree is best planted in a sunny place
Mountain pine is a plant that has high immunity against many parasites and diseases, so it is planted along fences, arbors, arches. To increase resistance to various infections requires sunlight, which contributes to the release of protective substances.
The landing site should be protected from the wind and with a deep passage of groundwater - at least 0.5 m.
Variety characteristics include the ability to grow on any soil, but a mixture of turf land, clay and sand mixed in a 2: 2: 1 ratio is best.
When planting in heavy soil, it is necessary to provide good drainage of sand and gravel.
The soil should be slightly acidic and not alkalized, otherwise the bush will not reveal all the decorativeness in the growth process.
Pits are dug out to the size of an earthen coma, approximately - 70x80 cm. The bottom is covered with drainage - pebbles, gravel or gravel. Then this nutritional composition is stacked.
Lower with a lump, sprinkle voids with soil, trample and water. The root neck of plants should be 20-30 cm above the soil level, otherwise the bush will simply rot and die.
When planting, you need to observe the distance between the bushes, otherwise over time, thickets will form in which the conifers will begin to hurt, turn yellow and dry. When planting adult specimens from 3 years old, holes are dug at a distance of 4 m.
The main care for the Mugus pine is to carry out several manipulations.
The first hydration is carried out immediately after planting the seedlings - a bucket of warm, settled water is poured under one plant.
To prevent from drying out, the soil near the trunk zone is mulched with peat. All subsequent irrigation depends on weather conditions and rainfall.
If the summer was dry, you need to water the bushes at least 3 times per season.
The procedure increases soil aeration, provides better access of moisture and oxygen to the roots.
This culture has a branched surface root system, so you need to loosen the area around the trunk accurately and not too deep.
As they grow between the conifers, weeds are removed that drown the plantings and take away moisture and nutrients from them.
Of the fertilizing for needles, nitrous preparations are suitable - nitrophoska, azofoska or urea.
Prepare a solution: 100 g per 100 l of water. Watered based on one young copy of 5 l of substance. To avoid burning the roots, fertilizers are combined with watering.
Pine must be fertilized
Before the onset of stable colds in autumn, the needles can be fed with phosphorus and potassium - these components will strengthen the plants before wintering and increase their frost resistance.
Prepare a solution of 15 g of superphosphate and 10 g of potassium nitrate per 10 l of water.
It is a mandatory care procedure - it helps protect shrubs from diseases, parasites and form a beautiful shape.
A sanitary haircut is carried out every spring - all shoots damaged by frost, winds and diseases are removed. Twigs growing inside the crown are also cut. They block access to light and disrupt the circulation of air inside it.
Formation is carried out in the summer, during the period of active needles growth.
Young plants need good shelter for the winter, especially in regions with prolonged severe frosts. The near-trunk zone is mulched with a thick layer of peat.
All shoots are tied with a rope to the central conductor, then wrapped with a spanbond or roofing material. Adult shrubs can simply be mulched, and overlaid the crown with fir spruce branches.
In the natural environment, pine propagates self-seeding from fallen seeds. At home, the method of cuttings is used, which allows you to get several plants with all varietal characteristics of the maternal shrub.
Cutting of pine consists of several stages.
- To obtain planting material, a healthy cultivated plant is selected. Cutting annual apical cuttings is carried out in the spring. Cut the cuttings so that they remain part of the tree (heel).
- Before planting, shoots must be freed from pitches - for this they are dipped in warm water for three hours. Then it is slightly dried and treated with one of the disinfectants - a strong solution of potassium permanganate, vitriol (1%). The content of 12 hours in the growth stimulator contributes to the rapid buildup of the root system.
- You can plant cuttings both in seedlings and in separate containers - pots, flowerpots with a height of at least 10 cm.
- The soil is used light, loose - mix sand with peat and turf in a ratio of 1: 2: 2. Expanded clay or pebbles are laid at the bottom of the box. Then the nutrient soil mixture is poured upstairs, leaving 2-3 cm of empty space from the top.
- Shoots are planted at a distance of 5-6 cm with a distance in the row of about 10 cm.
Plantings are placed in a warm place with diffused daylight, irrigated with warm water and covered with any transparent material, creating the effect of a mini-greenhouse.
In the process of germination, it is important to avoid hypothermia of the soil, and as a result, the root system. Therefore, many gardeners got the hang of planting needles in seedlings, then lowering them into larger containers filled with humus or last year's manure.
In a greenhouse, organics are able to generate heat, thereby ensuring the heating of planting containers and soil from below.
Keeping at home requires regular ventilation to prevent condensation and mold. It also requires irrigation with warm water, loosening and removing weeds.
Mountain pine takes root for a long time - from 1 to 1.5 years. Premature transplantation to the site can lead to the death of young shoots. The optimal planting time for spring planting of cuttings is in a year in early autumn.
Diseases and Pests
Preventative treatment will help keep trees healthy.
The only disease that affects this conifer is bubble bladder rust or teardrop. Signs of infection - the appearance of a yellowish coating on the tips of the needles.
All damaged specimens are disposed of, and their place of growth is sprayed with a solution of copper sulfate. These measures are mandatory, since this disease is not subject to treatment, and the remaining fossa is an excellent environment for the further spread of infection.
For prophylaxis, plants are treated with any drug containing copper. Double treatment is required - in the beginning of spring and in the fall a month before the onset of cold weather.
The second sore is sclerrolirosis, which destroys the apical part of the crown. The main cause of infection is illiterate pruning or its absence. All affected organs must be removed to a healthy tissue, then a sanitary haircut. Slices are treated with a solution of copper sulfate.
Aphids and caterpillars are the most avid parasites of this plant. Usually they appear in wet, rainy weather, as well as with thickened shrubs. They settle on the needles, young shoots, sucking juices out of them. To destroy pests, some insecticides will help - Actellik, Aktara, Fundazol or Decis.
For preventive purposes, you must follow simple rules:
- use healthy material for planting;
- plant in places where there is no swamp;
- avoid thickening of landings;
- in time to loosen, water and fertilize;
- spray plants twice with preventive drugs;
- regularly remove infected bushes and burn.
Due to the high decorativeness throughout the year, the ability to create the most unusual forms, pine Mugus has gained great popularity in landscape design.
- A bright and juicy plant is one of the best elements in decorating alpine hills, rocky gardens, mixborders, slopes.
- It is grown as a hedge, planted along borders, alleys, between other stunted conifers.
- Mountain pine not only enlivens the landscape, but also refreshes, saturates the air with components that are beneficial for the body.
- This plant goes well with bright decorative-flowering crops - roses, chrysanthemums, oak trees. To create a multifunctional mixborder from different types of needles, mugus pine is combined when planting with trees in which the crown has a golden or bluish tint.
- In multi-level compositions, pine trees are planted at the very top. Lichens, mosses, saxifrages, or heather are placed in the lower rows.
- From this shrub you can create a beautiful and compact bonsai. It will become an ever-green element in the design of the garden both in summer and in winter.
- Almost all plants tolerate the neighborhood of this conifer well - dwarf maples, cereals, decorative foliage and flowering specimens. Therefore, it can be combined with any plantings. The only thing that can cause incompatibility is the different requirements for the composition and fertility of the soil, and this point must be taken into account when group planting.
How to distinguish from Pumilio
Distinctive features of the mountain pine Pumilio:
- has a compact above-ground part - the maximum height is 1.4 m;
- the crown is thick, sprawling;
- upward branches form a dense dome;
- symmetrical bumps, purple;
- fruiting begins a little earlier - at 7 years of cultivation.
Gardeners who are engaged in the cultivation of this conifer are satisfied with its decorativeness and unpretentiousness in care:
- seedlings quickly take root in the open ground and the next year they begin to massively form a young growth;
- many gardeners of the northern zones note good resistance to frost and the ability to resist disease, subject to all agricultural practices;
- the plant easily tolerates drought, grows well on any type of soil, which makes the cultivation task easier for beginners.