Euphorbia, numbering several thousand species, is today a common decorative culture that adorns the landscapes of gardens. But no less popular is the indoor euphorbia, which flower growers plant at home and thereby decorate the apartment interior.
With an unpretentious flowering indoor plant, euphorbia often landscapes home premises, as it is grown in a variety of conditions. The largest types of indoor euphorbia do not require a lot of sunlight and are ready to live under various temperature conditions.
On the home windowsill euphorbia came from subtropical regions. Under natural conditions, this succulent is most often found among African and South American vegetation, in the Canary Islands and in Madagascar.
Succulent got its name “euphorbia” (euphorbia) in the homeland after a connoisseur of medicinal herbs from the Moorish island of Euphorbia. He used the juice secreted by euphorbiaceae as a poison.
Among euphorbiaceae, there are both one- and perennial plants in the form of grassy species, shrubs, and even low trees.
Due to its toxicity, indoor species of milkweed are dangerous and it is often recommended to keep them at home in those rooms where children and animals do not live. The poisonous juice of the euphorbia family that gets on the skin can cause allergic reactions, and if it enters the human or animal body, it harms the body, leading to severe poisoning. Even experienced flower growers transplant an indoor milkweed flower with extreme caution.
All types of milkweed, both domestic and garden, in their description of the composition contain a rubber component, essential oil, resin and the same milk plant that glorified the plant. In addition to these components, scientists found in various types of milkweed the presence of nitrogen-containing and polyphenolic compounds, in some there are amorphous gum and coumarins.
The poisonous properties of the plant with due care are used today to benefit as therapeutic agents. The root system, foliage and juice of milkweed often serves as home-made pharmaceuticals that have useful properties against a variety of inflammations, to accelerate wound healing, in order to increase immunity in the treatment of gastric disease.
Varieties of indoor succulents
Not all available euphorbia hybrids are suitable for indoor cultivation. There are the most common euphorbiaceae that take root well at home, their diversity can be seen in the photo.
The white-flowered flowering species is most popular in the list of indoor milkweed for the house and, as you see it, brings prosperity to the house. Outwardly, it looks like a stalk with ribs up to 0.4-0.6 meters high, covered with yellow scales. Oval foliage with yellow veins grows on the top of this plant. This indoor succulent is famous for its frequent flowering.
This is a type of prickly milkweed some have nicknamed the crown of thorns for its appearance, which can be seen in the photo. The plant has small sizes, up to 3 centimeters in length, oblong leaves, it blooms with small bright flowers, often red. Flowering in milkweed a mile lasts from spring to autumn, he loves sunlight very much.
Ribbed succulent grows like a green palm stalk, at the top of which is an oval foliage. In the process of plant growth, the leaves fall off, giving new place. This is a species that can only be propagated by seed at home.
The tarry euphorbia looks like a branched shrub growing up to a meter high, with stalks of green in color with a blue tint. On the faces of it, spikes up to 5 millimeters in size are arranged in pairs. It blooms at the top of the stems with yellow inflorescences.
This type of domestic milkweed is a bush of a cylindrical shape of green branches, growing in thickness to 0.7 centimeters. Small leaves, up to 6-12 millimeters, fall off, leaving dotted traces on straight branches.
The triangular succulent grows like a tree in height up to two to three meters in the form of trunks having three faces, which is why it got this name. Its stems are painted with white stripes, the rib is equipped with red spikes with a brown tint half a centimeter long.
This indoor euphorbia with an interesting name is correctly called voluptifolius. A rare species is a set of stems up to 0.2 meters long and up to 4-7 centimeters in diameter, covered with tubercles. Milkweed foliage grows on top of the head.
The basic principles of growing indoor succulents
Although domestic euphorbia is not at all picky about growing conditions, some rules must be observed when caring for it:
- milkweeds do not resist the sunlight, therefore they can be left for a long time on the windowsill in the south, south-east and south-west, without worrying that the plant will dry out under sunlight,
- the humidity of the surrounding air does not so much affect the comfort of the plant; therefore, additional moisture and spraying do not only require dusting the leaves with a special brush,
- succulents can grow at almost any temperature, however, the limit from 22 to 30 degrees will become most comfortable for it, you should also not lower the indicator below 10 degrees,
- when children or animals live in an apartment, the euphorbia is located in a place inaccessible to them.
These uncomplicated rules for growing and caring for milkweed can be mastered even by unprofessional flower growers, because succulent is often considered as a decorative culture in the house, and inexperienced flower growers can take care of them.
Principles of succulent propagation by cuttings
Different varieties of milkweed breed differently. For some species, it will be preferable to propagate through cuttings.
Seedlings through cuttings
Propagation of domestic milkweed by cuttings is done at the onset of spring. This method of reproduction is the trimming of cuttings-shoots on a stalk up to 12 centimeters long and their placement in water at room temperature or warmer, and then dried for several days. At the same time, the place of the cut is covered with a film, which means that the stalk is ready for planting in soil. The best for such a handle will be a peat-sand mixture. A succulent stalk planted in the soil after abundant watering is covered with a film to create a thermal effect and left so that the root system of the plant is fixed at a temperature of at least 20 degrees. The process of rooting homemade milkweed takes about 2 weeks.
Seedlings through the foliage
Propagation of milkweed through leaf cuttings involves plucking a leaf from which milk juice should drain. The leaf is held in the root, then moves to the mineral wool or sand with large grains of sand. The planted leaf is also abundantly spilled with water and covered with a film. The process of rooting leaf seedlings lasts at least a month. At the same time, one should not forget about the regular ventilation of the growing cuttings.
Principles of succulent seed propagation and division
Propagation of milkweed by means of cuttings is not suitable for all types of succulents. So, spherical milkweeds grow better if they multiply and grow from seeds. There are those species that multiply by dividing the bush.
To propagate milkweed at home by planting seeds, it will be necessary to prepare soil mixed with sand, for which this mixture is calcined in an oven and poured into a container for planting seeds. Milkweed seeds are sown in a well-spilled sandy-earth mixture, which is subsequently left in the illuminated and warm room for at least 2-4 months for seedlings to appear. As in the case of the propagation of domestic milkweed with foliage, the film periodically rises to give the germinating seeds air and water. Succulents are transplanted into permanent soil when he gave the first leaves.
It is more expedient to plant domestic euphorbia with the help of dividing the bush in early spring or at the very beginning of autumn. With this method of propagation, the bush together with the root is completely taken out of the pot, its root system is cleaned of dried and dead areas, the stem and roots are divided, preferably by hand, without using a knife or scissors. If it is not possible to divide the euphorbia without the help of tools, then the places of the cuts are subsequently burned with finely ground coal.
The parts obtained from dividing the bush are placed in different flower pots with a pre-laid drainage layer. As a rule, for plant adaptation with this method of reproduction, a longer period is required, sometimes a year or two.
Growing and Care Approaches
Planting and caring for domestic milk has a number of simple features to perform.
Place for the plant
The place where you can put the flower pot with milkweed depends on the weather outside. With the sun scorching outside the window, euphorbia is usually hidden in the shade. Although the succulent can easily tolerate a hot climate, since it comes from warm countries, excess heat entering through the window pane can cause unwanted burns on the leaves and drying out of the soil in the flower pot.
Often, florists having a summer cottage plot for the summer period plant their indoor euphorbia in the open ground or simply take it out to the fresh air in a pot.
In winter, try to avoid the places where the flower pot is located, where the central heating battery is located nearby.
Succulents, which include domestic euphorbia, can do without watering for a long time, because the scheme of saturation of the plant with water suggests that:
- in summer, the plant is watered once in a weekly interval, the succulent in the spring and autumn season needs water no more than once in the past two weeks,
- Euphorbia in winter does not require watering more often, weeks once a month.
It is possible to determine whether watering is required for room milk by the dryness of the upper soil layer. In case of exceeding the frequency and moderation of watering, putrefactive processes often occur that affect the root system of the plant. At the same time, indoor euphorbia does not apply to those home decorative flowers that require spraying.
Euphorbia is planted and transplanted at the onset of spring, before the start of the growing season, and its transplantation is allowed no more than once every two years, for which a loose soil mixture filled with nutrient minerals is used. Usually, the reason for a transplant is an overgrowth of its root system.
A mixture of different amounts of peat and land components, with the addition of sand and turf, is made as soil soil. Some for planting milkweed prefer to buy ready-made soil mixtures. Before planting the succulent in a flower pot, a drainage layer is laid out at the bottom of it.
Cutting and dressing a flower
For the comfortable state of home milkweed, when caring for it, it is necessary to periodically prune the plant and fertilize it using mineral flower complexes.
Succulent flower trying to cut in the spring and summer. Spring pruning of the flower is associated with the appearance of the plant and allows you to form the desired shape of the flower and give it further growth.
When carrying out the pruning procedure, it is necessary to remember the toxicity of the milk juice of milkweed, therefore, after finishing work, do not forget to wash your hands with soap.
Summer pruning is done in order to get rid of dried flower shoots and give strength to the young and strong, which should bloom for the next season.
Succulents are fed with mineral complexes in the process of flower care in the spring and autumn. Typically, gardeners use special fortified mixtures designed to feed cacti.
The need for nutrition can be judged when the leaves of the milkweed family turn yellow or they have fallen.
Plant nutrition is done once in a two-week interval, which is enough to give domestic milk milk strength for growth and development.