Growing apple trees Ural bulk
As a result of crossing varieties Ranetka and Papirovka, the Uralsky bulk apple tree was bred. The hybrid has the best characteristics of popular species - good resistance to cold and regular fruiting. The variety is in demand throughout Russia: any of its shortcomings are leveled out by proper care.
Growing apple trees Ural bulk
Advantages and disadvantages
The variety is unique in its properties. It is a frost-resistant hybrid that can survive extremely low air temperatures. The apple tree has a high ability to adapt: the seedling quickly takes root and quickly starts active growth.
Even in negative conditions, which is the main advantage of the variety, the fruits reach maturity in time.
Another advantage of the species is that it quickly begins to bear fruit.
After 2 years, the apple tree begins to bloom. From this period, productivity is increasing. Her peak falls at 5-6 years. The average yield of the hybrid is 3 kg per 1 ha of garden. Spring frosts are not terrible for the variety - such an advantage is important for regions with short and cold spring.
The hybrid is famous for its delicious fruits that can be stored for several months.
Varieties have a few flaws. He can suffer from diseases, but only in those cases when the gardener does not carry out prevention - the immunity of the culture is average. Trees are prone to scab, but they rarely suffer from powdery mildew.
The variety is autumn and fruitful. Fruits after 2-3 years, and immediately on the branches of a young tree ripe, tasty, full-fledged apples are formed. The yield increase is stable. The ripening period can be extended for a month - from September to October. Regular fruiting is independent of care.
The apple tree is self-infertile. Hybrid pollinators are varieties with similar characteristics. The best option is the apple tree Uralets. Pollinating trees bloom in one period. Cross pollination can increase the number of fruits.
General description of the apple variety Ural bulk:
- high winter hardiness, which does not depend on stock;
- drought resistance;
- buds on branches form earlier than on other fruit trees.
After ten years of age, the tree bears stable fruiting - up to 30 kg of crop per crop. Over time, it requires less maintenance. The seedlings are resistant, withstand any conditions - they need standard, but regular care.
The variety has a massive tree with lots of foliage. Crohn is moderately thick and dense. The annual growth is stable - up to 60 cm in one year. The first 2-3 years, the branches grow upward, and only then does the growth of side shoots begin.
Apple tree needs pruning
The crown is prone to excessive thickening, with which two-time pruning helps to cope. The average height of the crop is 8 m. The more fertile the soil, the higher the Ural bulk grows. The growth of the crown occurs every season - even over the years, pruning is not canceled.
Description of shoots: they are thick and strong. With a crown diameter of at least 4 m, branches are long. The maximum increase was noted at 15 years, after which the metabolic processes inside the trunk slow down.
The foliage is elongated, dark green in color. There is pubescence, but only on the inside of the plate.
Apples are small. The weight of one fruit is 60-70 g. Record apples weigh up to 200 g, but it is difficult to achieve such a result. The shape of the fruit is round, uniform. Ribs are mild and almost imperceptible.
The peel has a yellow tint, and a characteristic blush appears only during the ripening period. It is moderately dense, smooth and oily. Light points beneath it are visible after the fruit has ripened - the younger the apple, the lighter the peel.
The pulp is tender, dense, juicy, white in color and without veins. The taste is sweet and sour. You can’t feel the honey aftertaste right away: for this fruit needs to “lie down” in a secluded place. Sourness is felt in fruits that are only ripped off the branches. There is no tangible aroma even during prolonged storage.
Apples grow on a strong stalk. For this reason, they rarely fall to the ground - the crop hangs on the branches until October, and if there is no frost, the quality of the fruit does not change. The pulp loses its characteristics when stored improperly: it is loose, without moisture and a pronounced taste.
Due to the oily peel, debris and dirt often cling to the fruit. You can’t eat apples without processing.
Appreciate the fruit of the Ural bulk for its taste. Sweet pulp will not only decorate any dish, but will also be a source of nutrients. It contains at least 10% sugar - hence the sweet, honeyed taste. Dry soluble substances not less than 15%.
Contains apple ascorbic acid and B vitamins. Useful pulp composition can be used in diet food. Rich in fruit, phosphorus, calcium and pectin are useful ingredients for children of any age.
For planting, choose a healthy seedling
Planting a fruit tree is a simple process. It is carried out in three stages. At the first stage, the gardener chooses planting material, and at the second stage creates a pit for him. The final stage is the planting of a young tree on open ground.
The seedling should be:
- vaccinated. This is its main feature. If he is not vaccinated, he is unable to survive in the new conditions. Purchased materials must be processed in advance. The grafted seedlings have strong roots that do not tear when pressed;
- with a formed root system. In order for the seedling to start rapid growth, the roots must be at least 5-6 cm long. They are elastic, strong, uniform in thickness. Any damage or spots on the root is a good reason not to buy such material;
- with dense bark and without leaves. In addition to the main distinguishing features, the right planting material should have a dense bark. If you pick it up, gently touch it with a fingernail or any sharp object, under it there will be a green, juicy crust. You can not choose seedlings with leaves.
Choose biennial cultures. One-year-olds are instilled in a secluded place until spring, and then vaccinated - the only way the gardener can prepare planting material. To strengthen the immunity of the young tree, you can soak in the Fitosporin solution or in another drug, but you can do without such a procedure.
In spring and autumn, when the restoration of horticultural crops takes place, ideal conditions for planting an Ural bulk apple tree are formed. Seedlings with a closed root system can take root at any time of the year, but for them the best period is May or October.
There are differences in these procedures:
- pit preparation. If the gardener plans a spring procedure, he prepares a pit in the fall. This is the easiest option to enrich the soil. In the fall, he digs a hole that is suitable in size, and then fertilizer is poured into it. For the winter it can be mulched or covered. If this is not possible, a hole is dug in the spring - 2 weeks before the estimated date of landing. Autumn procedure involves the creation of a pit 14 days before the day of planting;
- care after disembarkation. In spring, the young tree is transferred to the usual regime for apple culture. Install watering, fertilizer and carry out pruning. Another case, if a tree was planted in the fall, watering, fertilizing is carried out and the culture is immediately insulated for the winter. The upcoming cooling after the autumn procedure excludes the usual care - the seedling is not watered and fertilized until spring;
- guidelines when and how to land. To understand when to carry out the procedure, you need to pay attention to the mature trees in the garden. In spring, fruit crops should not have ovaries, otherwise time has passed for planting. After winter, the soil warms up, which is important for the formation of a landing pit. In the fall, planting is carried out after harvesting. You need to free the trees from the fruits, remove the land from debris and leaves. Only after this form a landing pit. The autumn procedure is carried out a month before the expected frosts.
In spring and autumn, the tree has enough conditions for growth. Regardless of the region, planting material is adapted. The gardener’s task is to provide the seedlings with hydration and nutrition.
The Ural bulk has a dense crown, which requires free space. You can not plant a crop in cramped conditions - as the seedling grows, its branches will grow deformed, curved. On such shoots, full-fledged fruits will not be able to form.
The availability of free space is an important condition that affects the quantity and quality of the future crop.
The tree needs sunlight
Select sites without drafts. If there is a shelter or structure nearby, it should not hide the tree from sunlight. The variety likes lighted areas. Lowlands are not suitable for planting crops. On this territory, water is collected from the entire site. It spoils the root system, leads to its decay.
Groundwater that is closer to the surface will harm the seedling. The higher they are, the less nutrients are absorbed by the root system. The maximum height of groundwater is 2.5 m.
The dimensions of the landing pit are 80 cm in depth and 80 cm in diameter. These are optimal sizes suitable for the root system of the tree. A mixture of manure with water or superphosphate with ash is suitable for “filling” the pit. If potassium salt is added, then such proportions of the mixture are needed:
- 100 g of potassium salt;
- 200 g of superphosphate;
- 200 g of ash.
Harvested fertilizer is mixed with soil and placed on the bottom of the pit. The mixture is allowed to settle and only after a week they dig. After this, you need to wait another week and land. The roots are carefully leveled and placed in a pit. Fertile soil without impurities is poured on top.
The topsoil is tamped. Around the trunk create a soil roller. It is able to protect the culture from excess moisture and improve the quality of irrigation, which will be carried out in the future.
The characteristics of the Ural bulk apple tree do not change due to excessive care. Fruit tree needs watering, fertilizing the soil and loosening it, but only as the soil layer dries. Additionally, the gardener conducts sanitary and shaping pruning, maintenance work. Together, care guarantees a quality crop in September.
Watering is carried out three times a season. Water is often harmful. If in the summer the soil layer dries quickly, a small amount of moisture is introduced. It is better to use drip irrigation, which will provide nutrition not only to the rhizome, but to the whole tree.
Water is collected from sources or ordinary tap water is taken. The less impurities in it, the better the irrigation will go. The liquid is left on the street for the whole day so that it warms up. After that, irrigation is carried out. In the warm season, the procedure is performed in the evening, otherwise burns form on the leaves.
It is dangerous for young stems to apply fluid under the root. For these purposes, the gardener creates a trench at a distance of 10-15 cm from the basal part of the culture. Water is introduced gradually so that it has time to absorb.
Soil loosening is preliminarily carried out - the procedure will provide good soil throughput. Top dressing combined with hydration gives good results.
Foliar top dressing is suitable for a grade. For this, mineral mixtures are prepared. They are combined with spraying a tree to enhance the effect. For foliar top dressing, nitrogen and potassium substances are suitable.
Foliar top dressing will saturate a tree with microelements
Organics are used for a young tree during its active growth. To do this, take slurry or bird droppings. When the apple tree blooms, organic matter is introduced under the root. For the winter, the tree is mulched. As mulch, grass, hay or sawdust is used.
Peat or nutrients are added to the base. When snow falls, it is not removed - snow cover provides additional protection to the culture.
Trimming branches and forming crowns
Pruning is an important procedure for trees with a dense crown. The older the crop, the more often it needs pruning. The procedure is carried out with two goals: to form a crown and protect the tree from diseases and pests. Different events are scheduled for spring and autumn.
To prune the apple tree in spring, the tools are treated with a disinfectant solution. After that, choose the moment when the internal processes of the tree have recovered after winter, but new buds have not yet formed. Old branches or broken shoots are subject to removal. Slices should be treated with a disinfectant.
Autumn sanitary pruning is more important than crown formation. This procedure helps in preparation before winter. The gardener cuts off diseased and damaged branches - in this case, only healthy shoots are left on the tree.
Immediately after the procedure, the apple tree is insulated. If you can do without a spring procedure, then in the fall pruning is mandatory.
Wood processing from pests
Part of prevention and basic care is spraying the tree. Bordeaux fluid is used every three weeks. The mixture helps against scab, which threatens all crops in the garden. The maximum number of treatments is 7 times in one season. Whitewashing in spring and autumn allows you to protect the tree from sunburn.
Spraying a tree is carried out in this way:
- first treatment - before the appearance of the kidneys;
- when the buds bloom, perform a second treatment with Bordeaux fluid;
- before the formation of the fruits, the last sanitary spraying is carried out.
During flowering, the tree can not be processed. Such actions by the gardener will result in crop loss.
Ripening and fruiting
The variety bears fruit from the second year. If inflorescences appear in the first year, it is better to prune them so that the tree develops further. Brings apples hybrid every year. Fruit branches grow quickly, so they provide stable fruiting.
From the third year, the branches are loaded with a large number of fruits - there is a threat of deformation of the shoots. The average yield per tree is 250 kg.
The peculiarity of apples of the Uralsky bulk variety is that they are formed on branches, small stands and on twigs. Three different types of fruit formation give the same result. Branches age quickly, so they often form for pruning.
Harvesting and storage of crops
Apples can be stored fresh for three months
A tree blooms in June. Technical ripeness occurs at the end of September, but by October all the fruits ripen and a characteristic blush forms on their peel. You can harvest in three stages: first of all, in mid-September, fruits for compotes and juices are removed - they have a dense peel.
The second step is to collect rosy apples for raw consumption. The final stage coincides with the end of October. Take off the fruits for processing. They are juicy, moderately fragrant and with soft skin.
The variety has a strong peduncle. Even after the onset of frost, apples hang on branches and do not fall. In the same period, a plaque forms. The quality of the fruit may deteriorate, so you cannot delay the harvest.
Fresh apples can be stored for up to 2-3 months. For this, the gardener uses wooden boxes. Good storage conditions - a darkened room with moderate air humidity.
Adapted apple varieties Ural bulk:
- bushy ranetki;
- semi-cultivated trees;
- large fronted stlanes.
All subspecies are winter-hardy and withstand extreme temperature changes. The weight of the fruits of the ranetka does not exceed 15 g, but the culture itself is stable and not susceptible to common diseases.
The weight of the fruit is from 15 to 30 g in a semi-cultivated apple tree. It grows quickly and does not suffer from powdery mildew. Low winter hardiness and large fruits in large-fruited subspecies.
Growing in different regions
Ideal conditions for growing varieties developed in the Urals and Siberia. The harsh winters of these regions are not an obstacle to fruiting - the apple tree provides a stable, high-quality crop.
Bred under cold winters, the hybrid is very popular among gardeners. This is an unpretentious variety that can survive frosts and not lose its quality characteristics. Over the years, the yield of apple trees increases.
The fruits are distinguished by a high tasting rating - this is noted by all gardeners. To plant a culture, use various stocks that affect the resistance of the tree and the fruiting period.