Growing and Benefiting Tomato

Tomatoes are vegetables from the nightshade family, they are eaten and grown around the world. In the article you can read about the features of growing a tomato, find out how to properly care for the crop, as well as why fresh tomatoes are so useful, is there any harm from their use.

Growing and Benefiting Tomato

Growing conditions

Certain growing conditions depend on the characteristics of the tomato variety. There are two types of growing conditions: in open ground, in a greenhouse.

In the greenhouse

It is easiest to grow Tomatoes in a greenhouse, so you create the most comfortable conditions for the vegetable, protect it from an aggressive external environment. You only have one thing left - to maintain the necessary temperature regime, this will contribute to the rapid ripening of fruits. In addition, in this case, the growing season is significantly extended, because the greenhouse tomato is in stable comfortable conditions. Growing in a greenhouse is suitable for cold regions.

Tatyana Orlova (candidate of agricultural sciences):

Growing tomato in greenhouses is a more expensive undertaking. These are the costs of acquiring and installing a greenhouse, creating artificial conditions: heating the greenhouse, importing nutrient soil (and sometimes special shelving). Therefore, only high-yielding indeterminate hybrids are grown in the greenhouse, which rationally use not only the area, but the entire volume of the greenhouse.

In the open ground

If the cultivation will be carried out in the classical way, that is, on plantations or beds, you need to properly prepare the soil. Remove the weeds and stones that it contains from the soil, while keeping in mind that the earth should not be clay. On open ground it is better to grow in regions with a warm climate.

Growing rules

Seedling preparation

When you have decided on a place to grow, you can proceed to the next step - preparing seedlings for planting. You can use cuttings or buy ready-made seedlings that do not need to be pollinated, but nobody can guarantee its quality to you. You need to make sure that she is not old.

Tatyana Orlova (candidate of agricultural sciences):

For sale, tomato seedlings of some outstanding qualities are usually rarely grown. Seeds of such tomatoes are not cheap (for packing with 5-10 seeds up to 30-50 rubles). Therefore, 1 such seedling tomato plant could be expensive. As a rule, some of the most common and inexpensive varieties are grown for sale seedlings. If you do not care what kind of variety they are offering you, if only it was a tomato - buy it. If not, grow your favorite varieties yourself.

If you decide to prepare the seedlings yourself, you need to place it in a spacious container, for this the most ordinary plastic cups can do. This is done so that subsequently the roots of the tomato have a place for development and growth. It is important to ensure access of light to seedlings, and to maintain a humidity indicator at a mark of at least 60%.

Watering organization

How many times do you need to water the bushes? There are many varieties of varieties that do not need to be watered every day. You can choose a variety that needs to be watered only 1 time in 4 days, for example, the famous Lyuba tomato variety. It is worth watering the hole itself in such a way that the water does not flow over the bed, but gets exactly where it is needed.

The first watering is done in June, that is, at the time of planting seedlings. After the bush is in the ground, once again it is worth not watering the soil too abundantly. Further irrigation can be of several types:

  • Superficial
  • Drip
  • Sprinkler
  • Subsoil

If you grow Tomatoes for yourself, you can use the surface method: the most ordinary hose is connected to the source and water is supplied to the bed by inlet. All other methods are most often used in the cultivation of tomatoes on an industrial scale, in combination with other agricultural technology.

The consequences of improper watering

Much depends on the correctness of watering, namely the growth and yield indicator of bushes. As for greenhouses, quite often beginner gardeners are faced with the problem of violating the integrity of tomatoes, that is, they just crack, after which they can completely stop bearing fruit. It all starts with the appearance of small grooves, which subsequently dry and burst. This is due to excessive watering.

When water enters the soil, the roots are saturated with moisture. When it becomes too much, it enters directly into the fetus with excess, which leads to its cracking and deformation, which can cause loss of yield.

Tatyana Orlova (candidate of agricultural sciences):

The cause of cracking is not so much over irrigation as uneven. The soil then dries up to a rocky state, then waterlogged. Therefore, if it is not possible to often water your garden, you need to keep the plants under the mulch 5-10 cm thick, which protects the soil from evaporation. As mulch use mowed grass, hay, straw.

Top dressing

Top dressing is an integral part of growing tomatoes; it is applied directly to the soil or under a hole. The first time the soil needs to be fertilized before planting seedlings. Thus, you can saturate the soil with the necessary mineral and organic substances, this will positively affect the yield indicator.

Top dressing will increase crop yields

The next time you need to feed tomatoes 2 more times: the first time - after the seedlings are taken, the second - when the shoots are tied. As for the nutrient mixture, usually use calcium and ammonium nitrate, or the classic humus. It will take 0.5 kg of dry powder per 1 hundredth or 1 kg of humus for the same area. It is necessary to pour the mixture directly into the hole, after which pour plenty of water. If you are not comfortable working with dry fertilizers, you can purchase liquid mixtures, they are sold at specialized points.

Tatyana Orlova (candidate of agricultural sciences):

It is strictly forbidden to exceed the recommended proportion of fertilizing ingredients, as this can adversely affect the development of the root system.

Tomatoes are fed more than 2 times per season. Tomato is a multi-harvest crop, its fruits are harvested within a few weeks after flowering. Therefore, during fruiting, to extend the collection of full-fledged fruits, top dressing is applied at least 3 times. It should be a complete mineral fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, for example Nitrofoska, Azofoska.

Pruning bushes

With the help of tomato pruning, the plant receives a greater number of nutrients necessary for the full growth of tomatoes.

Tatyana Orlova (candidate of agricultural sciences):

They remove the top, “concoct”, indeterminate tomatoes, in order to stop their growth and to allow ripening fruits to ripen in time. In bush tomatoes, this is done only in late-ripening varieties, when the approaching autumn cold will not allow the fruits to ripen.

You need to trim the lower leaves, on which there are no ovaries. Do this as carefully as possible so as not to damage the stem itself.

Tatyana Orlova (candidate of agricultural sciences):

This technique is usually carried out in August, when there is a likelihood of late blight. The causative agent of this disease (spores) is often located on the surface of the soil. So that tomato plants do not have contact with the soil and cut the lower leaves.

Sometimes there is a need to trim not only the lower, but also the upper leaves. This is only advisable if the particular bush taken has grown too much and does not allow the plant to create ovaries, that is, it slows down the process of fruit formation.

Loosening

The ground for tomatoes needs to be loosened periodically. It is recommended to do this at least once every 9-14 days. If your tomatoes grow on heavy soil, which differs from the recommended, it is worthwhile to do deep cultivation two weeks after the shoots have sprouted.

Hilling

The first hilling, it is advisable to carry out after 7-9 days after the seedlings were placed in the ground. Before starting the process, you need to water the soil abundantly. The fact is that moisture in the soil will have a beneficial effect on the development of the root system faster. Tomatoes are being cultivated a second time after 1 month, counting down from the moment of the first hilling.

Bush formation

Speaking about the formation of a tomato bush, several procedures are implied at once, namely, pinching and pinching. Despite the fact that some gardeners prefer to skip this procedure, it is recommended to spend time on it, as this will positively affect the future crop. The most successful is the formation of a bush in 1 stalk, while only 3-4 brushes are left on it.

Tatyana Orlova (candidate of agricultural sciences):

This technique is recommended only for indeterminate (tall) varieties or in cold regions for early production, where you can actually get only tomatoes from the first ovaries.

Tying

Growing tomatoes implies the obligatory tying of the brushes of the bush. For support, you can use stakes or use a rope that is worth pulling along the beds. Do not forget about the special device - trellises, which can be purchased ready-made or made from improvised means yourself.

If you have chosen pegs or supports, then they should be placed on the north side so that they do not block the sun's rays, their height should be no more than one meter. Moreover, fixing brushes is recommended in three stages:

  • The first stage - immediately after the seedlings were planted
  • Stage 2 and 3, respectively - as the bush grows, on average 2 weeks after the first time and after a month.

Tomato Disease

Tomatoes can get sick

Tomatoes, like any other crop, are susceptible to many diseases. Most common:

  • Macrosporiosis
  • Phytosporosis
  • Septoria
  • Strick
  • Vertex rot
  • Stolbur

As for parasites, then on tomatoes are often found:

  • Whitefly
  • Food bear
  • Wireworm
  • Scoop
  • Gall nematode

Signs of the disease

You can easily determine that something is wrong with the bushes, the symptoms will say about this:

  • The color of the stem, tomato, or leaf may change due to nitrogen deficiency. In this case, the foliage becomes yellow, a white network of veins may appear on the leaves, the fruits of the tomatoes by touch become harder and grow more slowly;
  • With a lack of phosphorus, foliage is folded
  • Potassium deficiency is manifested by curly foliage and dry tomato flowers at flowering time
  • If there is not enough calcium in the soil - yellow spots will certainly appear on the foliage, the next stage, usually, is the appearance of apical rot, it is not worth collecting such fruits;
  • There is little sulfur in the soil - the color of the leaves becomes paler, after which the leaves become brittle and brittle;
  • A little boron - the stem gradually blackens, the fruits become covered with brown spots;
  • Iron deficiency - bush growth completely stops, subsequently chlorosis develops.

Varieties of tomatoes

The world knows about ten thousand names of tomato varieties. Among them there are fruits of red, yellow, lilac, orange and pink flowers, two-color fruits, there is even a vegetable with a black peel, obtained as a result of crossing cultivars with wild species. It is worth saying that the most delicious are orange and yellow species, their value lies in the sweet taste. There are varieties of green tomatoes, the nutritional properties of which indicate a pleasant sour taste and rich aroma.

Tomatoes can be of different sizes: the size of a grapefruit (weighs more than 200 grams), such as, for example, a variety called Bull’s heart. Small in size, such as cherry tomatoes.

They can have different shapes: round, long-fruited (oval) and even square.

They can be self-pollinated and require artificial pollination, late ripening, mid-ripening and early ripening.

It is worth saying that there are no bad varieties, each of them has its pros and cons.

Plum tomatoes

Fruits are ideal for making sauces.

Plum tomatoes, in the middle of which there are no seeds, are best used for making sauces. This includes such varieties as Nadezhda, Cream Giant, Watercolor, Adeline and others.

Meaty varieties

There are meaty varieties that are recommended to be eaten fresh, that is, do not use heat treatment. This group includes varieties Babushkin Secret, Eagle beak, Eagle Earl, Vityaz, Mazorini and others.

Universal tomatoes

We can not say about universal varieties that can be used for any purpose, they are most often grown in the household. Among the universal varieties, the best are Linda, Auria, Ilyich, Pearl, Angel and so on.

The benefits of tomatoes

Until a certain time, tomatoes were considered poisonous. Today, tomatoes are very useful vegetables, since their chemical composition contains phytonutrients and a lot of vitamins. We will find out how the use of fruits affects the state of human health, whether they help in the treatment of certain diseases.

Heart benefits

For people with heart disease, consuming tomatoes is good. The fact is that this product works to lower blood cholesterol, and also prevents the excessive production of platelets, that is, reduces the risk of heart attack. In addition, the composition does not contain starch.

For the skeletal system

Due to the fact that the tomato contains a lot of antioxidants and lycopene, their regular consumption helps to ensure that the skeletal system remains in order. Nutritionists recommend eating more tomatoes in order to prevent the development of osteoporosis, especially for menopausal women.

Cancer prevention

There are many studies that have proven that tomatoes have anti-cancer properties. Of course, you can’t use the tomato diet as the only way to fight cancer, but as an additional method, such nutrition will be ideal. The fact is that oncology often begins with an increase in the acidity of the medium, and tomatoes can bring this indicator back to normal.

In particular, leaning on tomatoes is recommended for men, this is necessary for the prevention of diseases of the prostate gland, including cancer. The thing is that in the composition of the fruits there is alpha-tomatin, capable of stopping the growth of cancer cells. Of course, we are talking more about prevention, which is more effective in comparison with treatment.

Other useful properties

These are far from all the healing qualities of tomatoes. It is also worth mentioning that regular consumption of fruits will be useful in diagnoses such as obesity or metabolic syndrome. They are needed in order to minimize the risk of neurological ailments, Alzheimer's disease is also included here.

In addition, it is important to mention that there is a tomato diet aimed at losing weight. Be sure that with its help you can easily keep your weight normal, they help to get rid of 3-4 kilograms in just 7-14 days. Everyone knows its low nutritional or energy value - in 100 grams of a vegetable contains only 18 calories.

The harm of tomatoes

Yes, a healthy vegetable like tomato can be harmful. What is its harmfulness expressed in? First, we must not forget that there is an allergy, that is, individual tolerance of a vegetable is a direct contraindication. Secondly, those who suffer from such diseases need to abandon the use of tomatoes:

  • Arthritis
  • Diseases of the genitourinary system
  • Gout
  • Gastritis
  • Duodenal ulcer and stomach
  • Acute pancreatitis

This is explained by the fact that tomatoes have oxalic acid, which invades the usual water-salt balance, which will lead to a deterioration in the general condition and exacerbation of the existing disease.

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