Grapes and spring frosts
Poor climatic conditions can become an obstacle to the successful cultivation of grapes. Grapes and spring frosts are incompatible. Therefore, gardeners often have to look for effective ways to protect and restore plants from the harmful effects of low temperature.
Grapes and spring frosts
The danger of frost for grapes
Spring is not only a time of plant awakening, but also a dangerous time of a drop in temperature indicators. So, grapes, regardless of varietal frost resistance, like heat and suffer from cold. Therefore, many gardeners prefer to play it safe and shelter their plantings for the winter, digging them out only at a steady temperature of 8-12 ° C.
During the recovery period of the vine, the temperature indicator even at -0 degrees can lead to freezing of the eyes. And this affects both the growth of the plant, and the flowering time and the amount of yield. If the vine was beaten with frost, then the sokokanals were frozen and the plant no longer receives the right amount of nutrition from the soil.
Types of Frost
It is also important what type of frost came to the territory of vineyard cultivation - advective or radiation. The most dangerous is advective cooling. It is very difficult to fight with him, sometimes even impossible. Such frosts are characterized by a several-day drop in temperature.
More often, the culture can withstand radiation cooling, that is, if the vines are frozen at night, then ont must warm up during the day. This type of frost is observed more often at night and concentrates on the surface level where the vineyard grows. Such frosts can and should be fought.
Symptoms of freezing
Freezing of the vine often worries gardeners in the spring, when active sap flow has already begun.
The vineyard can seriously suffer from bad weather conditions, which will affect the further growth and productivity of the crop. Its most vulnerable spot is the eyes. It is important that replacement buds are damaged less frequently than those that are called central, the most fruitful. Annual shoots also suffer from spring frosts, and with severe frosts the roots of the plant.
You can find out if the vineyard needs restoration already in early spring. You should take a knife and make an incision in the eyes. Those buds that are not frozen will be green. Damaged are those that have a brown or brown tint. Drilling a small part of the kidney indicates that the vine is moving away and no action is needed.
Danger of frost damage to the root system. To check the viability of the culture, you should:
- Dig a small hole near the bush until the roots of the plant are exposed.
- Make an incision with a garden knife on the surface of one of the roots.
- Check the color of the structure at the cut point. It should be white. Brown or black - the plant has died.
Checking the roots is only if signs of freezing of the kidneys are detected. A healthy green color indicates a healthy, undamaged root system.
Ways to protect plants from frost
Do not plant grapes in a windy place
Protection against frost must be provided to the culture during its planting period. The best place for such thermophilic plants is a garden section protected from the wind. As a barrier to the wind can serve as the wall of a house or some outbuildings.
If you want to care for an existing plant that is not protected by a wall or other devices, you should know some features. So that the grapes do not freeze with the onset of weather conditions in the spring, you should secure it with one of the following methods:
- The use of shelters. Polyethylene film, spanbond and other materials can be used. You can build a small greenhouse at the place of growing bushes by pulling on the trellis used material from different sides. You can also make a removable folding greenhouse on a wooden frame or on arches. Shelters are especially needed in regions where the risk of frost is highest. Only when heat is established on the street (at least 10 ° C), you can dig bushes from the shelter, shake off debris, particles of soil and straighten them. This must be done so that the plant is ventilated. On the same day, before a cool night, a mini greenhouse should be built where the bush will be reliably protected from any frost. It is most effective to use a mini-greenhouse on arches. Such a shelter allows you to leave a large space in the greenhouse, which will save the plant from heating.
- Smoke It is necessary to provide thick smoke that will warm the plants. You can use special smoke bombs or make a fire.
- Abundant watering and top dressing. Watering should be done before lowering the temperature. Evaporating, moisture will protect plants from damage. Mineral fertilizers (except nitrogen) have the same effect.
- Sprinkling. It is carried out during freezing. Freezing of the shoots takes place, which will save the plant from exposure from high frost.
- Weather conditions should be monitored. Warm, calm weather, the greenhouse can be removed. At night, the plant must be protected.
The gardener can choose the appropriate shelter protection method himself. It is worth remembering that greenhouses have the longest and most reliable effect. The remaining methods are short-term and can only help with frosts, lasting 1-2 days.
In regions where spring frosts are not uncommon, gardeners can take appropriate action in the fall. After falling leaves, spray the bushes with a solution of copper sulfate. In addition to the preventive action against pests and diseases, such an operation will affect the time of development of the eyes. The plant treated with this solution lingers in spring awakening for 7-10 days.
Restore frozen bushes
The fruitful eyes and annual shoots are the first to suffer from frost. Provided that the root system is not affected by spring frosts, you can restore the bush.
With minor damage to the root system, gardeners recommend removing most of the vine, leaving only a basal stem with the first eye from the ground. It should be buried in the ground for 1-2 weeks, so that a healthy part of the roots begins to give layering. This method will save the vineyard, but the next harvest will have to wait several years. For faster recovery of the plant, it is recommended to water it often.
It’s easier if only some parts of the bush are affected. Do not worry. With the onset of sap flow, some spare buds will sprout young shoots. In a month, new processes will appear, leaves will begin to form. Those shoots that remain unchanged should be cut off.
If grapes do not show signs of life, they should be disposed of. Such a plant can no longer be restored.
It is easier to protect the culture from spring frost than to restore it from the harmful effects of frost. You can make a mini greenhouse, smoke the plantings, irrigate and water them abundantly. But, if this could not be done, appropriate measures will have to be taken. The grapes affected in the spring from frost can only be restored if it is partially damaged. Not revived parts of the vine can be cut off after the end of sap flow. You can restore the bush, even when part of the roots froze. Depending on the degree of loss of plant viability, it is necessary to cover the grapes for a few more weeks in the ground or to remove most of the vine to stimulate the appearance of young shoots.