The formation of pepper in a polycarbonate greenhouse
There are several opinions regarding the formation of the crown of sweet pepper. Some believe that there is no point in engaging in pinching. This is true when it comes to varieties with a low-growing crown. In other cases, the formation of pepper in a polycarbonate greenhouse is the key to increasing productivity.
The formation of pepper in a polycarbonate greenhouse
Why do I need a stepsoning procedure?
The formation of a bush in a greenhouse is a fundamental factor in:
- ability to bear fruit;
- ripening speed.
In central Russia and its northern regions, crop cultivation is possible in greenhouse conditions. In them, the pinching of new ovaries allows you to save existing ones. Proper pepper care and the formation of a bush in the greenhouse allow you to redirect the strength of the plant to increase the fruit or, conversely, to their number with a decrease in size.
Different types of formation
Growing tall varieties in greenhouse conditions is impossible without competent pruning of the crown and tying the branches to trellises. Medium-sized varieties will be satisfied with pruning of the lower tier of processes and branches without ovaries. So you can help the plant direct forces to the formation of fruits. Pepper will not waste juice on unpromising branches, and crown ventilation will improve, which is the prevention of fungal diseases.
The need for pinching is determined by the height of the bushes. The process of trimming pepper is carried out only on certain varieties, regardless of the place of growth.
- Early ripe varieties ripen already on the 100th day after a spike dive.
- Mid-season - in 135 days.
- Late ripening - for 145-160 days.
Low-growing or dwarf species do not need agroforming of the crown. In low shrubs, unpromising shoots are rather weak and do not play a role in plant nutrition with nutrients. It is only necessary to form a crown when the seedlings are planted too tightly. A dense landing entails the densification of the tops and slows the development of plants.
The process of forming pepper bushes
Proper pepper care and the formation of a bush in a greenhouse made of a material such as polycarbonate are fundamental factors in obtaining a rich harvest. The formation of the stem depends not only on the variety of pepper, but also on the microclimate in the greenhouse.
The culture grown in an open area or in an unheated room is capable of reaching 60 cm in height, in a heated room, the height of the bushes is much larger and the fruits are larger.
To properly form a bush and not cause an infection, the tools are disinfected after each instance. Diseases are not always noticeable immediately. Pepper trimming is carried out only if the plants are healthy.
The formation of pepper includes a number of activities. It all starts with a Schematic arrangement of bushes. When the plants eject the buds, the crown ovary or several lateral ovaries are removed. In the process of growth, extra shoots and leaves are removed. When the crown is formed and the necessary number of ovaries remains, pinch the skeletal branches to provide the fruits with the necessary nutrition.
Schematic arrangement of seedlings
Planting scheme is depicted in the seed recommendation. The scheme depends on the highest height that the bush is able to reach. With the arrangement of pepper plantations are determined in advance. So, the undersized variety does not have to be cut if planting is performed in accordance with all the rules.
Planting scheme, depending on the variety:
- undersized specimens are placed at a distance of 20-30 cm from each other, per 1 square. m accounts for about 7 bushes;
- medium and tall specimens are placed at a distance of 35-40 cm, per 1 square. m will have about 5 bushes.
Seedlings need sunlight
For all types of pepper, leave a distance between rows of 60 cm to have free access to plants at any time. There is another landing scheme called square-nesting. It is universal and suitable for all kinds. With this arrangement, a 60x60 cm hole is dug in the soil. 2 plants are immediately placed in it.
Landing is carried out in composted soil. Seeds are sown in a common pot in March. Germination land must necessarily be fertilized with organic matter. When the sprouts will have 3 full leaves, they can be dived into separate peat containers.
Seedlings are best lighted up about 12 hours a day. At the end of the seedling period, the sprouts dive into the greenhouse, observing the layout.
Removing buds and pinching
The crown ovary is a kidney formed in the initial fork in the main trunk. Pepper has only the main trunk, branches when it reaches a height of 20 cm, depending on the variety. When the branch begins, the crown bud is cut off immediately. This move allows you to improve the nutrition of the kidneys located above the fork. The first pruning is carried out when the stem reaches 15 cm in height.
To form a bush begin as early as possible, in the process of development of the stem. Side shoots appear on it. Not only not extra shoots are removed, but also some of the flowers. Stepsons are all shoots that are formed in the axils of the leaves. They should be deleted.
On the initial stem leave 2-3 shoots. Leave the strongest, released from the fork, after removing the crown bud. These will be shoots of the first order, which are also called skeletal. Each skeletal branch has its own shoots, which also pinch. All procedures are carried out according to one principle: leave strong thick shoots, remove weak ones.
To obtain large fruits, from 15 to 25 ovaries are left on the bushes, depending on the variety. When the shoot is removed, 1 leaf is left on the stem: it is he who provides the nutrition of the ovary.
Pruning leaves and sprouts
The main stem releases leaves and shoots below the pinching point. They are immediately removed. Remove foliage, shading the light of the ovaries and consuming excess juices. The bush is constantly inspected for damaged, unhealthy leaves. They are also removed.
When the first batch of fruits reaches technical ripeness, leaves are removed under the bushes. Not more than 2 are removed at a time. So do with all the fruits. Toward the end of the season, no later than 45 days before the full harvest, pinching manipulations cease. It is strictly forbidden to remove all leaves at once, otherwise the bush will die.
If everything is done correctly and the desired number of fruits remains on the bush, take care of their nutrition. To begin with, kidney formation is stopped. This move allows you to rationally distribute the strength of the plant.
The last pruning is carried out 45 days before the full harvest. Cut off all the tops of skeletal branches. At this moment, the active formation and ripening of the fruit occurs. Pinching the growth points of skeletal branches allows you to direct the juices to provide nutrients to existing fruits.
If several coronary ovaries appear on the main stem, they are all removed. If this is not done, the bush will grow poorly.
When growing in heated greenhouses from polycarbonate in plants, the growing season increases — you need to work harder and cut off all the leaves thrown out by the main stem.
If the bush is struck by white, bacterial or gray rot, it is forbidden to carry out pinching: this will only harm the plant.
With increased humidity in the greenhouse, it is imperative to remove the lower leaves, even from undersized varieties of pepper.
The bush is recommended to form in 2 stems. This allows you to get the optimal number of skeletal branches, the fruits of which can be well established.
Be sure to tie tall specimens.
Timely pinching of pepper culture and proper care help to achieve good yields, regardless of where they grow. The purpose of the procedure is thinning tops, increasing plant health, increasing yields, protecting against fungal diseases. Prepare the tool in advance, grind it, disinfect it. Bushes examined for the presence of diseases. After each bush, an additional disinfection of tools is mandatory.