Flowering grape care
The flowering of grapes is a special period that determines the quantity and quality of the future harvest. How much care was taken at the stage of formation and opening of the buds depends on how many ovaries the vine will give.
Flowering grape care
The calendar dates when the vineyard blooms, and the duration of the period of disclosure of inflorescences directly depend on weather conditions. The beginning of the budding stage of the vine usually falls on the last days of May – early June. Garden culture blooms for 8 to 14 days. In this case, the temperature regime of 25-30 ° C increases the stage of budding, and a decrease in the degree to 15 ° C and lower with simultaneous excessive humidity slows down the pollination and ovary formation process.
The flowering process is also affected by the lack of supply of moisture and moisture during drying out of the soil and low fertility in a meter of the thickness of the upper layer.
The grapes of wine varietal varieties are the first to bloom.
The process itself originates from the base of a grape flower, and after 2 days the inflorescence blooms completely. During this period, fallen caps are found in the garden under grape bushes. The plant begins to dump them at a temperature of at least 10 ° C.
Grape inflorescences in most cases bloom at the same time, however, part of the buds may linger in the opening, which is quite acceptable.
Grape inflorescences open in the morning, from 6.00-11.00 hours. After disclosure, susceptibility to pollination continues for 4-6 days, after which an ovary is formed.
The vine is prepared for the period of formation and opening of buds.
Extra green parts are cut off from the plant and young shoots are tied up, which are required to grow when creating frame support.
Regular watering avoids cracking of berries if the weather at the fruiting stage is rainy. The norm of watering is 50 liters per 1 meter of trellis, which is equivalent to 10 buckets for each grape bush. For greater efficiency, the vine is watered with mineral-organic complexes with boron. Watering is stopped 14 days before the calendar dates for the start of the budding stage.
Pest and disease protection
To protect the vine from pests, the plant is sprayed 3-5 days before the buds open. Against mildew, the vine is processed 7 days before the start of budding.
Sprinkling grapes during flowering with chemicals against diseases and pests is prohibited.
At the stage of active kidney swelling, mineral fertilizer complexes with potassium, nitrogen, and phosphorus are introduced. Immediately before the bud opening stage, compositions rich in manganese, molybdenum and boron are used.
The plant needs to be well looked after
When the grapes bloom, it is important for the plant to ensure proper care.
Pinch of shoots
The stage of budding of the vine coincides with the period of active growth of green shoots. If you find caps dropped by the plant, fruitful shoots must be pinched in one of the possible ways:
- By tight pinching. If the grape bushes have a large increase, the variety is prone to shedding flowers and peeling, or the plant has a female type of inflorescence, part of the shoot is removed, leaving no more than 5-8 large leaves over the inflorescence.
- By the method of soft pinching, when only a crown with 2 leaves is removed.
Pinching grape shoots at the stage of formation and opening of inflorescences inhibits the plant in growth for 2 weeks, which provides the crop with better nutrition and promotes the formation of more berries, increasing the total weight of the bunch by 20%.
During budding of the vine, an optimum temperature of 17 ° C and moderate drought are required. Under such climatic conditions, pollination and ovary formation are successful. With insufficient moisture and drying out, as well as in rainy and cold weather, grapes bloom and are pollinated less efficiently, often dumping inflorescences and ovaries, leading to peeling.
Under adverse climatic conditions, additional artificial pollination is carried out:
- 2 blades are made of plywood, on which fur is glued, usually rabbit,
- touches of fur on both sides of 10-20 flowers simultaneously collect pollen from inflorescences of pollinating varieties and transfer them to fertilized flowers, periodically getting rid of sterile pollen, knocking the shoulder blades together.
Flowering grapes are pollinated on dry inflorescences after the decline of morning dew in the time interval between 07.00 and 09.00 or after drying of raindrops. Under adverse climatic conditions, the procedure is repeated at least 2-3 times. This allows you to increase the yield of berries by 15-30%.
Artificial pollination during flowering of grapes on bisexual varietal varieties under favorable climatic conditions can be carried out by simply shaking the frames (wire) on which the vine is held. The frequency of the procedure is 2-3 times for a short phase of bud opening. The mechanical shaking of pollen can be replaced by the action of a weak air stream directed from the pollinator at a distance of at least 0.5-0.8 m from the plant.
The quality of pollination is checked at the end of the flowering stage with a magnifier, revealing brown stigmas in vine inflorescences.
In varietal varieties bearing large clusters, extra clusters are manually removed, leaving only the most promising, which relieves the plant from excessive load.
During the flowering period of grapes, the quality of bunches is increased by making fertilizer complexes. This is done after 4-6 days after the appearance of the first blossoming inflorescences. Suitable fertilizers include formulations containing potassium, nitrogen and boron.
A number of budding stimulants increase bud opening. Spraying with stimulants is carried out in the phase of abundant opening of inflorescences. Dispersed sulfur is often used as stimulant. In the morning, it pollinates inflorescences at a distance of 1 m from the trellis.
In the process of caring for the vine at the stage of budding, a number of restrictions are adhered to:
- the plant is not watered, because excessive humidity adversely affects the quality of pollination,
- the soil where the garden crop is planted is not digged or weeded,
- do not use chemical preparations.
The flowering of grapes is an important stage in the development of horticultural culture, laying the quality and quantity of the future harvest. Effective budding and the further formation of berries are made possible by preparatory measures and proper grape care during flowering.