Fighting the spider mite on the apple tree
A spider mite on an apple tree appears under warm weather conditions. It feeds on plant juices, thereby weakening the trees. As a result, they lose part of the foliage, disrupting the process of photosynthesis. Young apple trees begin to lag behind in development, and fruiting trees reduce yield.
Fighting the spider mite on the apple tree
Signs of occurrence
The spider mite is part of the arachnid family.
It is small in size, grows in length no more than 1 mm. You can see it from the underside of the foliage, where it is attached by punctures in the sheet tissue, sucking vegetable juice from them.
In places of punctures, necrosis is formed on the upper side of the leaves - a white, yellow or brown spot formed from dead tissue cells.
With a massive attack by a tick on an apple tree that can bring up to 5 generations per year, gardeners often face complete destruction of the garden culture.
A large colony of the pest that settled on apple foliage looks like a plaque. Upon reaching a large tick-borne population on the foliage, a web becomes clearly visible.
Description of Varieties
The family of arachnid ticks has many varieties. Most of them are too small, therefore they are recognized only through a magnifying glass.
The fruit red appearance has dimensions up to 0.4 mm. It has an oval-shaped red body.
A large population looks like a single spot with a yellowish tint, located along the leaf vein.
The brown fruit variety has a flat body up to 0.6 mm long, painted in a brown shade. Prefers to settle on the kidneys.
Recognize its presence by the remains of silver larval skins after molting, which accumulate on the bark of trees.
Gallic species prefers a secretive lifestyle, hiding inside twisted foliage and buds. Its size is up to 0.25 mm, the shape is elongated, oval, tapers to the rear base, white color.
On foliage, the population forms galls - yellow or brown swellings of a spherical shape, hence it takes its name.
Pests can destroy all kidneys
The kidney species is considered the most dangerous, because he prefers to settle inside the buds on young shoots, taking away from them the chance to develop further.
Its length is not more than 0.2 mm. The shape of the body is round, elongated, and vermiform. Coloring is white or with a yellowish tinge.
As a result of its presence on the apple tree, large, deformed, diseased kidneys appear.
A tick-borne variety of Schlechtendal is less common. The pest is up to 0.2 mm long; the body color is yellowish with brown.
It is characterized by increased fecundity: females are capable of laying up to 2 million eggs in their life cycle.
Due to the active nutrition of these pests, the processes of photosynthesis are disrupted in the foliage, and it falls off.
What harm does
The main harm from the spider mite is a violation of photosynthesis in the foliage due to tissue damage, as well as a weakening of the resistance of trees to viral, bacterial and fungal infections due to a lack of plant juices for proper nutrition.
As a result of the active development of tick-borne colonies:
- young apple trees stop in development;
- adult weakened trees become an object for infection;
- gardeners lose their crops and face the complete destruction of the garden culture.
Effective Ways to Combat
The fight against spider mites on apple trees should be comprehensive, using completely different means at the same time.
With the mass appearance of the pest, you can destroy the pest by using special drugs:
- Bi58 and similar.
They contain malathion, which has a quick destructive effect on the pest, and have a complex effect, while destroying other pests - scutes, leafworms, codling moths and others.
Apply by spraying or dusting in dry weather without wind. Use 30 days before the planned harvest.
The detrimental effect occurs on the second or third day after treatment. The permissible number of treatments per season is no more than 2.
It is recommended to alternate preparations for processing
- Demitan and the like.
They have an extended, up to 20 days, period of protection against tick-borne parasite. As an active ingredient, many of them include Propargite. The advantage of their use is the selectivity of exposure only to the pest, without toxic effects on other insects.
It is recommended to alternate drugs so that resistance does not occur.
Biological control methods allow you to destroy the tick without causing toxic harm to the apple tree and its fruits.
However, they have less efficiency and are unable to fight at low ambient temperatures, starting to work when the air warms up to 18 ° C and above.
These drugs include Fitoverm and Apollo; they contain mite toxic waste products from fungal microorganisms.
The advantage is the possibility of their use before harvesting (for 2 days) and an increase in the frequency of treatments for the season. They are also capable of pernicious effects on adults only, without destroying tick-borne larvae.
Folk remedies help get rid of tick attacks without causing toxic damage to apple trees:
- garlic - pour 50 g of 10 g of water, add up to 40 g of laundry soap and spray the trees from top to bottom;
- tar soap - 100 g per 10 liters of water, sprayed weekly;
- onion - infusion of 200 g of onion husks and 10 l of water, aged 1 hour, spray the garden culture in the affected areas;
- horseradish - chopped vegetable (400 g) is infused in 10 liters of water for 2-3 hours and sprayed with apple trees;
- black henbane - poisonous berries (2 kg) are boiled in 10 l of water, increase the volume of liquid to 10 l and spray plantings;
- apple cider vinegar (1 tablespoon per 1 liter of water) also helps to resist against aphids and fungi.
Folk remedies do not show proper effectiveness in a mass attack and are used more often for prevention purposes, and they can also be used in parallel with other methods of struggle.
When to process
Apple trees should be protected from spider mites throughout the growing season.
Before the buds open
The initial anti-mite treatment in the spring occurs before the apple buds bloom, i.e. until about March. It destroys overwintered individuals.
Processing begins at an ambient temperature of 5 ° C and above, using acaricidal preparations or copper and iron sulfate. Treated trees and soil around the trunks.
Before the inflorescences
Secondary anti-mite treatment occurs after blooming buds until the inflorescences appear. This is usually May.
Insecticides help get rid of the pest
To protect apple trees from pests, insecticidal or acaricidal preparations are used at this stage.
During the flowering period of apple trees, treatment is not used, because the active components included in them adversely affect the fruits and lead to the death of bees and other beneficial insects necessary for pollination.
Spraying is carried out in exceptional cases with the threat of the death of a garden culture.
At the fruiting stage
The third anti-mite treatment begins at the stage of formation and growth of apples and occurs more often in June, it is stopped 30 days before the planned harvest.
It is recommended for her to choose a different insecticidal complex than the one that was used during the initial spraying.
The final pest control is carried out after the collection of apples before the leaves fall. It allows you to destroy individuals remaining for the winter. At this stage, copper sulfate, urea, or insecticides are used.
The appearance of a spider mite often ends with a loss of crop, reduced immunity of trees before the winter season, damage to the garden culture by bacterial, viral and fungal infections, and sometimes leads to the death of the plant.
Preventive measures to combat the spider mite on the apple tree relate to agricultural techniques. It helps:
- autumn plowing;
- destruction of weeds, in which tick-borne eggs often remain;
- pruning of damaged branches;
- cleansing the skeletal branches of the backward bark, under which the pest hibernates;
- increasing the resistance of trees by applying top-dressing in a foliar way.
In a mass attack of a pest, damaged shoots are cut and burned.