Fighting the grape leaf

Pests of grapes lead to inhibition of plant development, reduction or lack of yield. Leaf grape on the grape has reached the greatest distribution among insects. It should be combated comprehensively by connecting chemical, folk remedies.

Fighting the grape leaf

Pest Description

The most dangerous are leaf grapes of 2 types: grape and grape. They belong to codling moths, because they eat garden plants and shrubs.

The insect looks like a small moth or moth. The most dangerous caterpillars. They can lead to grape crop losses of up to 70%.

Clusters

The grape leaflet of grapes has a trunk length of 11-12 mm. A butterfly with a wingspan of 19-20 mm is highlighted in a bright pattern. Its front wings are painted in gray-green, yellow, dark gray tones. The colors are combined with a mosaic pattern.

Butterflies begin to fly when the air temperature warms up to 14 ° C. Their years lasts about 35 days. A female butterfly lives from 3 to 4 days, laying one lenticular egg each (up to 100 pieces in total). They are transparent yellow. After 6-10 days, gray-green or olive caterpillars up to 10 mm long appear in adulthood. They are mobile. Head, nape covered with shades of golden hue.

The leaflet is formed into a narrow pupa of a brown-olive hue, pointed at the end. Length reaches 6 mm.

Wintering with a pupa takes place under the bark of trees, at the base of the stem. Penetrates under the crust through cracks, freezing.

The caterpillars have adapted to the cycle of the vineyard. They do harm by eating parts of the plant:

  • 1st generation eats buds, flowers, young ovaries;
  • 2 generation eats unripe fruits;
  • 3rd generation gnaws ripe fruits.

A bunch of grape leaves weaves a web of parts of the vineyard, sucking the juices out of it. Leaves, berries stop eating from the whole plant. They lack nutrients. Exchange is slowing down. During rainy foggy weather with high humidity, the affected branches and fruits rot, spreading rot throughout the plant.

Grape Leaflover

The insect (Sparganothis pilleriana Schiff) is distinguished by an elongated oral apparatus, gray-brown hind wings. The wings in front are green, shiny or ocher.

There is a grape leaflet with brown-gray transverse stripes on the wings. They appear in males.

Butterflies appear in the evening, night time in July and August. The insect lives up to 10 days.

Laying 40-45 eggs occurs in one clutch. It has a flat oval shape. The eggs are located on the outside of the vine leaves, forming a white sticky mass. Under favorable temperature conditions, larvae develop up to 20 days. The color of the outer shell of the eggs determines their age:

  • immediately after shelving, they are light green;
  • after 10 days, the color turns brown;
  • before hatching, the eggs become black;
  • the shell left without eggs has a silver hue.

After simultaneous hatching, the larvae reach a length of 1.8 mm. They are able to immediately creep along the deciduous part of the tree. In the absence of food, they fall on the bark, going down the cobweb. There they hibernate. Pre-entwined with a thin shell. Its length reaches 2 mm, width ー 0.4-0.6 mm. The shell is reinforced with nibbled pieces of wood. Such protection is able to transfer up to -26 ° C-27 ° CC.

Caterpillars leave the place of wintering with an interval of several weeks. They eat grape buds from the inside. Then they move to the young leaves.

Leaves curl, turn brown-red. They gradually dry up, fall off. With a severe defeat, the grape bush may completely lose its leaves.

Chemicals

Handling should be done with caution.

Insecticides are effectively used together with fungicides to control leaflets on grapes. Processing the plant is stopped a month before the start of fruit collection.

The drugs are highly toxic to bees, medium toxicity to warm-blooded. Dilution of drugs in the right concentration protects the vineyard. When working with chemicals adhere to the recommendations:

  • protect the face, hands, other parts of the body with protective clothing, a gas mask;
  • high rubber boots are worn on the feet;
  • carry out processing early in the morning or late in the evening;
  • during spraying do not eat, do not drink, do not smoke.

Fighting a bunch of leaves

Use the drug "Tokution" with the active substance prothiophos. It is based on the contact and intestinal effects on the body of an insect. Sold in an emulsion concentration of 50% or a powder substance of 40%.

Spray all parts of the plant during the growing season. The emulsion is diluted in a proportion of 0.6-2.0 l / ha. Processed 4 times per season. The substance is dangerous for beneficial insects (including for bees, ladybugs).

The tool "Tsimbush" has a contact effect. Possible 10%, 25% concentration. The consumption rate of the substance is 0.7-0.9 l / ha (10%), 0.26-0.4 l / ha (25%). They spray the vineyard three times a season.

Adhering to the recommended dosage ensures complete safety of the product for humans.

"Ekamet" (the active substance is Satisfar, Etrimphos) is used as a multidisciplinary insecticide. It is consumed 1.5-2.0 l / ha, the treatment is carried out 5 times per season during vegetative growth. The last spraying is done 40-45 days before the final ripening of the berries before harvest.

Grape Leaf Fight

For the struggle during the growing season, the same methods are used as for the cluster leaf. Effectively process the vineyard in the fall and winter. On stiff branches, shtamb send a strong stream of diluted drugs. This helps to get the pupae of insects wintering in the holes of the bark.

Use the chemical pesticide Nitrafen. It consists of sodium salts. The concentration is selected 2-3.5%, which reduces phytotoxicity. It is toxic to humans, therefore, requires enhanced protection when used.

Effective drug "DNOC" with the active substance dinitroorthocresol. The tool penetrates the bodies of pests in wet weather, the presence of rainfall. 10 g of the drug is diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 2, mixed. Add 10 l of water. The plant is sprayed at an air temperature of 5 ° C and below.

Folk remedies

Among the available safe methods, the use of tobacco infusion (100 g / 1 liter of boiling water) or a decoction of wormwood (5 branches / 1 liter of boiling water) is effective. Means insist a day in a cool dark place. The berry is abundantly sprayed after a flowering period every day for a week.

Butterfly traps will help get rid of leaf graders on grapes. Use a bait with wine. Plastic bottles are cut, suspended near the berries. Pour wine with vinegar, sugar. The trap is used immediately after the appearance of butterflies in a period of drought. The fluid is often changed, because in the open air it changes its composition due to weather and precipitation.

Every morning, check the bottles for leaflets on the grapes. The more pests caught, the less eggs will be laid in the vineyard.

An alternative method of controlling insects is light traps. They act on males. Females are caught by hanging odors on the plant identical to male pheromones.

Conclusion

Grape varieties with dense clusters are unstable to the leaflet. Among them - Biruinza, Riesling, Pinot noir, Gewurztraminer. When choosing, pay attention to species with medium or high immunity to the pest. These include December grapes, Liana, Lancelot, Moldova.

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