Fighting black cancer on apple trees
Black apple cancer in a short period of time can destroy all fruit trees. It is characterized by the intensity of development and distribution. Quickly throws to a healthy landing.
Fighting black cancer on apple trees
Etiology and types
The causative agent of an infectious disease is the botryospherical fungus, which parasitizes on living tissues and dead woody areas. It affects all above-ground apple vegetative parts.
Infection occurs by the ingestion of fungal spores through mechanical damage on the surface of the tree bark.
According to the description of a fungal infection, it produces in two forms:
- closed - there are no open areas on the infected tree, and the lesion sites are located under the formed wood influxes and other neoplasms;
- open - non-growing open fragments are formed on the apple tree, surrounded by perimeters of large diameter growths.
An open course is the most common.
Causes and symptoms
More often, infection occurs in early spring, when the air warms up to positive temperatures.
Mushroom spores begin to spread actively at ambient temperatures of 22 ° C and above. The average time of their germination under favorable conditions is 6 hours.
More often, black cancer appears in an old apple tree. But there are completely different reasons:
- the weakening of the garden culture due to concomitant bacterial, viral or other fungal infections (for example, defeat by scab, powdery mildew and others);
- low immunity and weak regenerative function of trees due to their age;
- excessive thickening of the tree crown and poor organized air circulation;
- irregular pruning of old and damaged branches;
- intoxication of horticultural crops with fresh organic fertilizers that are too close to the root system by digging;
- preference for an intensive garden with a compact planting if the recommended distance between the trees is not observed;
- planting apple trees near the location of compost pits, in which organics are actively decomposed.
Favorable factors for maintaining the normal functioning of the fungus are mosses and lichens settled on apple trunks, supporting a warm and humid microclimate, and an excess of nutrients in the soil, creating a comfortable environment for the development of fungal conidia.
At the initial stage, black cancer on the apple tree is visually difficult to determine. External signs of infection are detected by a change in the vegetative parts.
The bark of the tree for the presence of fungus is studied in early spring, and with the help of a magnifying glass they examine wounds, cuts, frost holes and cracks.
What does the bark affected by the fungus look like:
- small specks that have accumulated in the form of circles around the wounds;
- focal lesions on the trunk and skeletal branches that are dark with a purple or brown tint, resembling burns;
- cracking of the tree bark, its inversion and exposure of wood, which begins to blacken after a while.
The formation of peculiar rings around the branches, trunk and at the fork of the skeleton speaks of the last stage of the disease, which leads to the death of the tree.
A cancerous fungus on inflorescences leads to a change in their color to brown - on the outside and black - on the inside. The inflorescence itself is deformed.
A disease can ruin a crop
On the ovaries and apples, the infection does not show obvious signs at the initial stage and becomes noticeable when they grow to medium size.
On unripened fruits, black cancer manifests itself in the form of small putrefactive specks.
Over time, these points increase in diameter, covered with fungal spores, covering the entire surface of the apple. The fruit acquires a black color and smooth surface.
Mushroom spores settled on apple foliage change its color from green to dark brown or reddish. In the center, spores form point fragments, gradually grow around the circumference, turning into a single gray spot.
The defeat of the foliage by the fungus leads to its withering and subsequent decay. Often, gardeners due to leaf infection by infection observe summer leaf fall.
As a result of leaf damage in trees, the process of photosynthesis is disrupted, which directly affects the productivity indicators.
Weakened apple trees are poorly prepared for the upcoming cold weather. Due to the disturbed metabolic process, young seedlings do not have time to ripen the wood, which is the reason for their death from frost.
Black Cancer Treatment Scheme
Modern means and techniques that are used in combination help to fight the disease and completely cure it.
An important condition is to start the struggle at the initial stages of development.
Before treating lesions with special means, they clean the infected areas:
- cut off diseased branches;
- remove diseased foliage;
- break off the affected fruits;
- extensively infected specimens are uprooted, while they try to remove roots at great depths;
- whole skeletal branches with infectious rings are cut off;
- local foci on the tree bark are cut to a layer of healthy wood, capturing up to 2 cm of living tissue.
All trimmed parts are burned to prevent the spread of fungal spores to healthy trees.
After stripping, disinfection and isolation of the wounds is carried out, processing sections on the skeletal branches and the cleaned lesions on the tree bark by means with an antiseptic spectrum of action.
- copper sulfate in solution - 100 g per 10 l of water;
- vitriol in solution - 200 g per 10 liters of water;
- concentrated potassium permanganate solution;
- solution of brilliant green.
A cleaned wound should be treated with garden var
To avoid the ingress of air, moisture and microorganisms causing infections, antiseptic-treated wounds isolate:
- drying oil;
- oil paint;
- garden var.
Protecting Healthy Trees
Given the rapid spread of fungal spores by air, they protect a healthy garden culture and preserved vegetative parts of affected trees:
- trunks and branches are treated with disinfectants;
- tree crowns are sprayed with fungicidal preparations and others, in which copper is present;
- the whole garden is treated with antifungal agents.
At the same time, in the treatment of black cancer in the garden, they try not to dig around the trunk, because Such plowing of soil can provoke the formation of small mechanical damage to the roots and the penetration of fungal spores that have remained in the soil through them.
Instead of near-trunk digging, the soil is loosened to a shallow depth and watered with preparations with fungicides.
Chemical and biological agents
Treatment of black cancer in apple trees involves the use of drugs aimed at the destruction of fungal spores and increase the immunity of the tree.
Copper-containing products are suitable for disinfection, have a detrimental effect on the development of the pathogen of infection and act as fertilizing fertilizing.
The vegetative part is sprayed:
- copper sulfate;
- Bordeaux mixture;
- complex substances: Hom, Kuprostat, Tsikhom, etc.
For spraying soil and crowns, contact and systemic preparations with fungicides are used, which simultaneously affect the cancer pathogen, fungal and bacterial infections and pests:
- Gates and similar.
Fungicides preserve the vitality of trees.
Compositions of biological effects, made on the basis of the vital activity of bacteria, are included in putties or in solutions for soaking clay, mullein, and garden soil (Gamair, Alirin, Fitoporin).
In the treatment of cancer, folk remedies can be used.
You can cure an apple from black cancer with folk remedies.
As a disinfectant folk remedies against fungus have:
- saline with iodine;
- powder for washing clothes;
- soap solution;
- oxal grass.
It is permissible to isolate wounds from the ingress of air, water and microorganisms using natural components.
- Clay with Mullein. The components are mixed in equal proportions, the mixture is applied in a thick (at least 10 cm) layer. Next, a cut or damage to the tree bark is bandaged and again covered with this mixture. Throughout the whole fruit season, the treated area is moistened with water or a heteroauxin solution (2 tablets per 10 liters of water) and covered again with a layer of clay-mullein mixture.
- Rosin with wax and nigrol. Putty is made from components taken in equal proportions and applied to damage or slice, covering in 2-3 layers, allowing each of them to dry.
- Earth. Garden soil pretreated with fungicide is applied to damage or cut without surface dressing. After the past rain, the process of coating with earth is repeated.
- Apple bark. The tree bark is cut along a contour equal to the contour of the damage or cut. The edges of the patch are combined and bandaged. Top cover with garden var.
Black cancer on apple trees is also treated with medications, which act as additional measures.
Antiseptic medications are used for treatment, including potassium permanganate.
The potassium permanganate solution is used for minor infections of the apple tree. The working solution is made at the rate of 2 g of potassium permanganate per 10 water. The trunk and skeletal branches are treated with it, trying to apply potassium permanganate during processing, carefully impregnating the surface.
An additional means of prevention and treatment of fungal infection is manganese fertilizer.
After processing the trunk and branches with a solution of potassium permanganate, the apple crown is sprayed.
Antibiotics can also be used to treat apple cancer. Most often use streptomycin and tetracycline:
- for the initial treatment, 1 g of streptomycin is diluted in 5 l of water, the frequency of treatments is 3 with an interval of 2-3 weeks, carried out in June;
- repeated antibiotic protection is planned for the next fruit season with the replacement of the drug with tetracycline, it is diluted in the amount of 2 tablets. 5 l of water, the frequency of treatments - 3 with an interval of 2-3 weeks, carried out in June.
At the onset of the rainy season, the horticultural crop is cultivated without sustaining the prescribed interval.
Antibiotic treatment will save the tree
A different antibiotic regimen is acceptable, in which the recommended dose is taken for initial spraying, and for each subsequent concentration is increased, diluting 1 g of the drug first in 4 l, then in 3 l of water.
Stem injections containing streptomycin are given at any stage of the growing season:
- at a distance of 1.0 m from the soil surface, a hole is drilled at 2 cm of depth, choosing a place for it so that there are no mechanical damage and other deformations of the tree bark near which a drug solution could leak;
- a hose is inserted into the drilled hole and streptomycin in solution with a concentration of 4% is fed under it under pressure;
- the hole is sealed with a stopper.
Holes on the branches for supplying the drug in injections are made at a distance of 0.3-0.4 m from the growth point. A separate injection is planned for each skeletal branch with a diameter of more than 0.15 m.
Injections with an antibiotic are repeated with an interval of 7 days. The permissible number of procedures is 5.
In healthy apple trees that are properly cared for, the risk of developing black cancer is reduced to a minimum.
It is possible to increase the resistance to the causative agent of cancer infection by applying fertilizers: superphosphate, urea, ammonium, potassium salt and nitrate, ammonium nitrate, etc.
Complexes based on organic matter are widely used, among which the components are living microorganisms (for example, Baikal-EM1).
To activate beneficial bacteria, the fermentation process is started:
- the drug is diluted in warm water;
- add sugar (1 tablespoon per 1 liter), sugar can be replaced with a similar amount of honey, molasses or jam;
- the container with the solution is put in a warm darkened place;
- wait for the fermentation process, which takes from the moment of mixing the ingredients until ready for about 10 days.
The use of Baikal-EM1 and similar biological agents increases the immunity of trees, stimulates the regeneration of tissue cells of the tree bark, increases resistance to cold and prevents the appearance of frost on the surface of the apple bark.
When to carry out treatment procedures
All procedures for the treatment of black cancer in apple trees associated with circumcision of damaged vegetative parts are planned for a period of slowing down vegetable juice:
- in early spring until the onset of active kidney growth;
- in late autumn when preparing trees for wintering after they take off foliage and apples.
Spraying with chemical and folk remedies is carried out depending on the vegetative cycle and the chosen means:
- Chemicals are used until the stage of awakening of the kidneys, before the start of budding and before the formation of the fruit;
- in between these treatments use folk remedies.
Proper care will help prevent infection.
Preventive measures are associated with the basic rules of agricultural technology when growing a garden crop:
- trees are planned to be planted taking into account the recommended distance between them of 3 m or more, avoiding the close arrangement of compost pits with organic matter with them, while places that are closed to direct sunlight should be preferred for planting, as constant exposure to ultraviolet radiation often leads to a burn of leaves, which becomes a favorable factor for the development of the fungus;
- for proper circulation of air flows, the apple crown is regularly cut off, adhering to an angle of more than 45 °;
- uproot old, obsolete apple trees, or if they intend to preserve them, thoroughly clean the tree bark, which improves gas exchange and destroys possible fungal spores and pests that have accumulated under dead tissue;
- conduct whitewashing at a height of up to 2 m, incl. in the spring to buds and in the fall at the end of leaf fall;
- in regions with unfavorable conditions for black cancer, varieties resistant to fungus are planted due to the climatic conditions conducive to infection.
Black Cancer Resistant Varieties
Gardeners in regions with a warm and humid climate, when choosing varietal varieties of apple trees, opt for cancer fungus resistant:
- show the average resistance of Spartan, Orlik, Pinova, Redfrey and others;
- summer - Papyrovka, Alva, Baagaevsky and others;
- Autumn - Borovinka, Freedom, Korichno and others;
- winter varieties - Jonotan, Resistant, Lobo, Zarya Alatau, etc.
The difference between frost and black cancer
Some gardeners, with a thorough examination of apple trees in spring, make erroneous conclusions about the appearance of black cancer, confusing it with signs of frostbite disease.
Frost-holes - cracks on the stem, resulting from a sharp temperature drop due to the rapid cooling and dehydration of the outer part of the trunk and the slowdown of these processes in the core.
Its difference from black cancer:
- appears accompanied by cod caused by strong pressure on the outer layer and rupture of tissues;
- has a radial (almost vertical) location of the crack;
- in a short time it is immediately covered with a new layer of healthy wood due to the active development of cambium.
Ordinary freezing warriors cause no less damage to the garden culture, opening the way for the penetration of viral, bacterial and fungal infections, in the absence of proper treatment it threatens to rot the tree.
The main causes of the appearance of black cancer are neglect of the rules of agricultural technology, poor resistance of the variety, intoxication with fresh organics introduced under the roots.
Infectious disease is treated with chemical, folk and biological agents. The best means of struggle are preventive measures.