Field species of mushrooms
There are mushrooms growing in open areas. Such species are common in both forested and steppe regions. Important conditions for their growth are the presence of a favorable substrate and humidity.
Field species of mushrooms
In English, the names of this species are associated with horses, because the species likes manure-fertilized soil. Often grows on meadow pastures, near rivers and lakes. Description:
- Hat: a shape ranging from bell-shaped to flat, in diameter reaches 20 cm. The color is white, cream, gradually turns yellow from touch.
- Leg: cylindrical, up to 10 cm high, there is a ring. Easy to detach from the hat.
- Pulp: dense, sweet in taste, has a pronounced anise or almond smell, turns yellow.
Champignons are edible mushrooms. They are easy to distinguish from doubles, they are unpretentious. Suitable for all types of heat treatment, some even eat them raw. They grow from late May to mid-October. Sometimes they are confused with poisonous species:
- pale grebe;
- yellow skin champignon.
Other names: negniuchnik, meadow, clove mushroom. These mushrooms have special properties: after a long drought, they become saturated with moisture and bear fruit again. Undemanding to the substrate, therefore, found in all fields. Description:
- Hat: reddish yellow with a convex top, the edges are uneven, often crack.
- Hymenophore: plates infrequent, large, free from old mushrooms. Their color is a bit paler than the hat.
- Leg: long, thin, there is a powdery coating. May narrow down.
- Pulp: white-yellow, smells like cloves or almonds.
The fruiting season is from May to October. In cooking, usually only hats are used, because legs are particularly stiff.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
The honey agaric, or meadow marasmius, belongs to the 4th category of edibility and is a conditionally edible fungus. However, despite such a definition of a place for him by a person, this species of honey agarics has antifungal properties and is capable of eliminating viruses and cells of malignant neoplasms. In addition to all this, its compounds are able to dilate blood vessels and influence the thyroid gland.
According to the method of nutrition, the non-snive (meadow honey agaric) refers to saprophytes. According to the peculiarities of appearance, it can be said that his hat is characterized by hygrophanicity and its appearance depends on the amount of water in its cells, i.e. it is able to swell and dry. The ability to tolerate prolonged drying is associated with the presence of a sufficiently large amount of trehalose in the carbohydrate cells.
For this species of honey mushrooms, such poisonous doubles are characteristic:
- whitish talker;
- Collibia is loving.
Edible field mushrooms more often than others need preliminary heat treatment. They must be boiled for 15 minutes.
The rowing is versatile in cooking
The lilac-legged rower prefers alkaline soil, chooses pasture and moist fields as his habitat. During growth, it can form “witch circles” or rows. Appearance:
- Hat: up to 20 cm in diameter, pillow-shaped, tight to the touch.
- Gymenophore: lamellar, represented by plates of yellow or cream color.
- Leg: cylindrical, without narrowing along the entire length. In adults, it is completely smooth, there is a slight thickening at the base. The color is pale purple or lilac.
- Pulp: friable, has a fruity smell, tastes a little sweet.
The collection season is in early September, it does not last long. The row is subjected to all processing methods, in the marinade it turns white.
Unlike other species, these mushrooms prefer slightly arid habitats. They have a specific appearance:
- Fruit body: spherical, pear-shaped or club-shaped. Usually white in young or brown in adult specimens. The surface of some species is covered with small formations that look like thorns.
- Shell: two-layer, the outer layer is smooth, the inner is leathery.
- Gleb: whitish (in young), has a strong pleasant smell. On the cut, the color gradually changes; in old mushrooms, the hleb becomes a brown or gray powder from spores.
Fruits from mid-summer to late autumn. Young mushrooms are mainly prepared because they are soft and have a well-defined pleasant taste.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
The fruit body of the raincoat is located and is formed on dense mycelial cords. Initially, white in young specimens of gleb, as the fungus ripens, it changes in color and is divided into chambers lined with hymen. This is where the formation of spores takes place. When the complete ripening of the fruiting body is completed, it ruptures at the apex and the basidiospores erupt.
The species is susceptible to contaminated environment, so the place of collection of fruiting bodies is chosen carefully.
Edible mushrooms are rarely found in meadows. White and black Gruzdy grow near the forest itself or in highly darkened birch or coniferous groves, parks.
The names go back to the Church Slavonic language and mean "heap" because mushrooms grow in groups. Description:
- Hat: wide flat with a recess in the middle. Thick, firm to the touch. In some species, the edge is uneven or with a short fringe.
- Hymenophore: represented by frequently arranged white plates with a yellowish tinge.
- Leg: fused with plates, short and wide. The color is the same as the hat, on the cut it is hollow, the shape is cylindrical.
- Pulp: the mushrooms have a fruity smell, at the break changes color. It gives off white milky juice, which turns yellow in the air.
The fruiting season is July-September. The species is considered conditionally edible; therefore, preliminary heat treatment is recommended. Good for pickling and pickling, when frying and boiling it becomes tough.
There are few field species of mushrooms. Delicacies are meadow honey agaric and champignon. Mushrooms, raincoat and rowing are less common, their taste is much lower. All types of mushrooms found in open areas prefer saturated and moist soil, often grow on pastures and places of livestock walking.