Features of summer pruning of grapes
In the southern regions, culture is cut off only in spring and autumn. Fruits in such conditions get a lot of light and heat, the growing season is long. Pruning of grapes in the summer is often carried out in the middle lane. It is aimed at removing shoots, leaves and ovaries.
Features of summer pruning of grapes
Summer pruning goals
Not all beginner gardeners are aware of this stage of grape care. But if you do not complete the procedure, the plant significantly reduces the quantity and quality of the fruit.
The objectives of the summer pruning of grapes:
- yield increase;
- improved taste and increased berry size;
- providing ventilation of the plant;
- acceleration of fruit ripening;
- disease prevention;
- increase in the amount of nutrients;
- facilitating bush care and harvesting.
After performing the manipulations, the plant reduces the waste of energy on the formation of young shoots and directs them to pour berries. This adjustment helps to achieve a balance between fruiting and empty vines. The correct formation of the bush helps to improve the general condition of the culture.
Breaking off shoots
Underdeveloped and immature shoots break off in late May - early June, depending on the climatic conditions of the region. Shoots by this time should reach 15-20 cm in length, then it will not be difficult to remove them. Inspect the vine for the presence of unnecessary branches once a week from June to August. This will allow timely pruning, which will ensure an earlier crop.
The branches that formed in the autumn are tied to a support.
Also, wild growth that grows from the roots should be removed. The cultural is not broken off, but is used to form a bush. The stronger the plant, the more branches are left.
If the tops are not cleaned in time, they will take on the part of the food that is necessary for flowering and the formation of ovaries. And also new shoots will create shading. Fresh air and sunlight cannot penetrate the plant. The berries on the thickened bushes lack sugar, and the plant itself begins to hurt.
Benefits of summer pruning
If you cut grapes in the summer from unnecessary shoots, then you can achieve such results:
- the load on the plant is evenly distributed;
- the crop is laid (also for the next year);
- food is sent to the brushes;
- access of the sun to the ovaries is provided.
With the onset of spring, the supply of nutrients in the vine begins to move toward growth points. Apical shoots and inflorescences are no exception. When the lateral branches develop actively, the micronutrients may not be enough for the hands. The plant discards flowers, inflorescences are transformed into antennae.
To prevent this situation, grapes are trimmed in the summer in the form of a pinch of the top with unopened leaves. This gives the following results:
- growth of lateral branches stops;
- inflorescences develop, forming ovaries;
- plentiful flowering next year.
Pinching promotes ovary formation
Pinch the shoot in the middle of the internode above the first inflorescence. The event is combined with cutting stepsons or rationing clusters. Pinching is also done when you need to adjust the growth of the bush.
Clipping of grapes in July involves the removal of lateral shoots that form between the main stem and leaves.
The event should be carried out according to this principle: the stepson is not removed entirely, but a stump of 1.5 cm is left (a cut is made above the feather sheet). If you do not adhere to these recommendations, a new one will quickly grow in place of the broken branch. Truncate another antennae. If the plant is tied to a support, it is necessary to remove them all, since this organ is intended only for adhesion during branching.
It is worth making sure that 2 stepson does not grow from one eye. If this happens, remove the smaller one. The procedure is performed for table varieties. The best time to cut the grapes in this way is June. Repeat the procedure several times per season. Combine with a garter of grapes.
Shorten young shoots in August. Do this with your hands or with the help of a garden pruner or knife that is pre-disinfected. The process resembles the method of pinching. The difference is a deeper cutoff of the apex. They begin it when the lateral branch straightens and reaches 1-1.3 m. Then its apical part is removed with 5-8 open leaves - 15-20% of the length of the stem.
If coinage is made faster than the set time or cut off the shoots too much, the vine will begin to intensively create stepsons. Culture will spend a lot of energy on their education. Removing large amounts of foliage will slow down the process of photosynthesis. For normal cultural activity, about 14 leaves should remain on the branches.
This type of pruning of grapes in summer is performed for tall bushes. It contributes to:
- prevent shedding of buds;
- high productivity;
- increase the taste of berries;
- preventing the development of diseases.
Some gardeners cut another part of their upper roots in August. This stimulates the lower root system.
Pruning after flowering
To increase the illumination and airing of the growing clusters, summer pruning of grapes is also done by removing part of the leaves (from 5 to 10 pieces). In addition to the one that creates the shading, the old and the foliage located below the bush are trimmed. The procedure is performed when the fruits begin to ripen. It is recommended to produce it in regions where the summer period is short-lived. In the South, indications for foliage removal are:
- wet and cool summers;
- growing vigorous varieties.
Pruning grapes in the summer after flowering also includes rationing of the crop. Remove some of the brushes.
To fully ripen large clusters, small ones are removed. On the shoots leave no more than 3 pieces, if they are weak, then only one. Often with a sharp knife shorten the bunch. Normalization is done when the berries have not yet begun to ripen. Thanks to such actions, much more nutrients will come to the remaining fruits.
There is another option for obtaining an early and high-quality crop - banding. For its implementation, the bark is cut from a young branch in the form of a thin ring (1-3 mm). Then the culture directs nutrition to the clusters, as well as to those parts of the plant that are above the notch. Fruits due to such actions ripen 2 weeks earlier. But the procedure is painful for grapes, so you should not use it every year.
Features of summer pruning
The main events are held in autumn and spring. Before performing summer manipulations, novice gardeners should consider the shape of the bush, as well as the procedure. In regions with cold winters, a pruning scheme is used in which a stampless plant is formed. If shelter is not provided - standard.
After performing all the manipulations, equal sections should remain. It is better if they are located on the inside of the stem, then the wounds will heal faster. If the slices are on different sides, the movement of the juice is hampered, which affects the yield badly.
Trimming grapes in summer is better in the morning or evening. It is desirable that the weather be cloudy. For a young plant that only bears fruit for 1-2 years, branches with clusters are removed. Otherwise, the culture does not have enough strength to ripen them. The execution time of the procedure is adjusted according to the climatic conditions of the region.
Proper summer pruning of grapes is the key to a good harvest in the fall. It is produced from June to August.
It is not worth neglecting the removal of unnecessary branches, otherwise the plant will still hurt. And over time, turn into a wild shrub.