Features of the reproduction of mushrooms

To save money and get environmentally friendly products, people grow different cultures, including mushrooms, in their dachas (adapting utility rooms for this). They are easy to grow both in the garden and indoors. To effectively organize the growing process, you need to understand what constitutes the reproduction of mushrooms and what is the specificity of this process.

Features of the reproduction of mushrooms

Features of the structure of mushrooms

Before talking about the methods of propagation of mushrooms, you need to understand what these organisms are. They combine some of the signs of animals and plants, therefore they were united in a separate kingdom - Mushrooms. After much debate, scientists who could not decide what kind of species they should be attributed to a mushroom kingdom.

Initially, this group of organisms lived in the waters of the oceans. After some time, for unknown reasons, they changed their habitat, moving to the forest. With the kingdom of the Plant they are united:

  • ability to reproduce by spores;
  • absorptive diet;
  • the presence of a cell wall;
  • the presence of vacuoles in the cell;
  • unlimited growth, etc.

Animals related to the kingdom:

  • metabolic product - urea;
  • lack of plastids (including chloroplasts);
  • heterotrophic nutrition;
  • the presence of chitin in the cell wall;
  • reserve nutrient - glycogen, etc.

Not everyone has a concept about the structure of the fungus. It consists of mycelium (mycelium, or vegetative body) playing an important role in the process of reproduction, and directly the reproductive organs. Mycelium is underground. It is a thin, colorless thread through which nutrition occurs.

It is difficult to find another organism that could adapt so well to environmental conditions.

Mushroom propagation

The reproduction of mushrooms, united in a separate large kingdom, occurs in 3 ways:

  • vegetative;
  • asexual;
  • sexual

Those. they reproduce using all methods known to science today.

Vegetative propagation method

This method is convenient to use when growing crops in the country, in the basement or on mushroom farms. Its essence lies in the division of the mycelium. Some parts of a certain size are separated from the main vegetative body and placed in an environment where they begin to develop separately. This is the fastest way, often found in the wild.

A feature of the vegetative propagation of fungi is that arthrospores (oidia) and chlamydospores form in many species. These cells give rise to new mycelium. Oidia are formed as a result of the decay of hyphae. Each such cell gives rise to a new mycelium. A feature of chlamydospores is that these cells are covered with a dense membrane, sometimes colored in a color different from the color of the mycelium. This shell contains nutrients that allow the cell to “wait out” adverse conditions. Viable chlamydospore remains for 7-10 years.

But division by the formation of oidium or chlamydospores is not purely a vegetative method. It is classified as a cross between vegetative and asexual reproduction of mushrooms.

Budding occurs when a neoplasm occurs on the mycelium, which increases over time and becomes a separate organism. First, the kidney has microscopic dimensions. Among higher organisms, budding is rare, but representatives of the lower class (yeast-like, for example) use it often.

Asexual reproduction method

It is very difficult to collect planting material

In the asexual method, fungi multiply by microscopic spores. Spore breeding is similar to using seeds, but planting material is harder to collect. Disputes are spread not only by the wind, although they most often travel with air currents, but also stick to the hair of animals. It is interesting that these microscopic particles do not sink. When they enter a favorable environment, they develop, forming a mycelium.

Spores can form inside or on the surface of spore-forming organs. They differ in structure. Some spores are equipped with flagella allowing them to move, and are called zoospores. Others do not have such flagella; they are motionless and are called sporangiospores.

Irina Selyutina (Biologist):

The presence of motile zoospores is characterized by many lower fungi. Zoospores develop in sporangia. Other lower fungi are characterized by sporangiospores that develop in sporangia. Sporangia sit on special, different from other hyphae - sporangios. They rise up from the substrate on which they developed. This elevated arrangement of sporangia facilitates the spread of spores by air currents after the sporangia membrane has developed.

Asexual reproduction using conidia is described for marsupials, basidiophys, imperfect and few lower fungi adapted to terrestrial existence. Conidia are coated, they do not have flagella - organs of movement, the spread occurs with the help of air, insects, humans.

It is interesting that copies of parents with insignificant mutations grow out of spores.

Disputes are intended only to increase the population.

If you look at the number of representatives of the kingdom, you can see that even with the asexual method of reproduction, significant changes in species occur. This is due to the fact that several generations grow each season, each of which has some changes. And ultimately, minor mutations of each generation lead to the emergence of new species.

Sexual reproduction method

From the name it’s clear that this is a merger process. During sexual reproduction of fungi, male and female cells (gametes) merge. But this happens in the second stage of reproduction. The first stage involves the formation of these cells. In the process of fusion, disputes arise, from which a new organism is formed. With the asexual method, the formation of spores is not supposed to merge cells, which is their difference. Cells intended for sexual reproduction may have the same appearance, but may vary.

It is interesting that lower fungi that multiply by cell fusion immediately give rise to sexual spores. Representatives of the upper class first form a mycelium, which is somewhat different from the one from which the mushrooms emerge. This method is also characteristic of marsupials. But in them, cell fusion occurs directly inside the bag (asuka). The cell formed inside the bag is capable of dividing and forming new spores.

Interesting Facts

The main role in reproduction in any way is played by the mycelium, which is underground. If you harvest by cutting the fruiting body, the mycelium remains intact, because you left part of the stem in the soil. Already within 14-20 days, he is able to grow a new fruiting body, filled with spores. If during harvest the fruit body is pulled out of the ground (attention! Pulled out, not twisted), the integrity of the mycelium is violated. It will take a long time to restore this organ. The duration of recovery depends on the area of ​​the damaged part of the mycelium.

For molds, all methods of reproduction are characteristic. Yeast that does not use oxygen for respiration is propagated vegetatively and sexually, actinomycetes (radiant mushrooms) are vegetative and asexual, imperfect sexual. Parasitic fungi are characterized by sexual reproduction in the form of somatogamy. The stage of the dicarion can last for years, and for tinder even decades. Each variety of the mushroom kingdom has properties that are unique to it.

In cap mushrooms, spores are located under the cap (on its lower side). The part of the fruiting body where spore formation occurs is called the hymenophore. The spore layer is tubular or lamellar. The tubular type of surface implies the presence of many tightly adjacent tubes, in which spores are placed. You cannot see these tubes without a microscope, which is why the surface resembles a sponge externally. In the people they are called not tubular, but spongy. The plate gimenophore is clearly distinguishable without magnifying devices. In addition to the usual types of hymenophores that are familiar to us, there are several more, however we habitually use only two known from the school bench.


Even the scientists today do not give a full description of the appearance on our planet of representatives of the kingdom of mushrooms. This process has been partially studied. But this knowledge is enough to understand the features of the process and reproduce it at home, creating conditions that are most reminiscent of the conditions for the growth of one or another species in nature.

When breeding at home, the easiest way to use the vegetative method. Some varieties or species can be propagated asexually. At the same time, growing mycelium on its own, watering the substrate with water in which the caps of the selected type of mushroom were soaked. But it is better to purchase it in a specialized store. Its germination rate is 98%, while a self-made mixture does not always form a viable mycelium.


Bottle Gourd
Description Belorussian cabbage
Turkey Nest Device