Features of the red steppe breed of cows
Man has long been engaged in animal husbandry. Goats, geese, ducks - this list goes on and on. But there is a special animal among domestic helpers that enjoys extraordinary popularity among caring owners and brings them a lot of benefits. This is a cow. This animal throughout its life supplies a person with milk, which is incomparable in its composition and level of utility with any other product, and after that it is a source of no less healthy meat. One of the most common species of domestic large-horned is the red steppe breed of cows.
Red steppe breed of cows
What are the origins of the breed?
The roots of the appearance of the red-steppe breed go back to the end of the XVIII century. In those days, Ukrainian lands were part of the Russian Empire, which was actively expanding its borders. One of its new acquisitions is the Tavria Peninsula, known to us today under the name of Crimea. It was there, in the area of the Molochnaya River, which flowed through the territory of the Tauride province, that the heroes of this review appeared. The fauna of this territory was not very diverse in the village, so the inhabitants began to breed red-cows.
Due to the rapidly changing political situation in the empire, many peasants began to change their place of residence. Peasants of Tavria were no exception. And it is quite natural that during the resettlement to another place, along with the villagers, a new red steppe cow also wandered. So on the territory of the Volga and Donbass, Kherson and Yekaterinoslav new individuals appeared. Here breeding was carried out at the discretion of the owners: either within the species, or by further breeding with local breeds. The motherland of the steppe cow has a hot climate, so in other regions of the Russian Empire it has not received much distribution. Residents of other regions for the most part bred offspring of this group or other types of cattle.
What were the cows
It was easy for red steppe cows to get used to life in the new conditions, they showed their unpretentiousness in nutrition and maintenance, were resistant to various types of diseases, but most importantly they showed high average annual milk yield, as a result of which it was quite expected that this breed became very popular among livestock breeders and widely spread not only in Ukraine, but also in many other countries of the world with a similar climate.
Time passed, living conditions and political conditions changed. In 1923, this variety of home satellites of the rural inhabitant was officially registered in the Soviet Union. Today, the described species is one of the most popular species in our country. It is most numerous in the territory of Zaporozhye and in adjacent regions of the state. Her milk pleases children and adults from all over the world.
In modern conditions, this breed has undergone some changes and, unlike its first representatives, is not only dairy, but also has a powerful muscular body, which is especially appreciated by our compatriots.
What is she, red steppe?
The general characteristics of cows of the red steppe breed deserve special attention. Initially, the Ukrainian red breed had a number of external shortcomings. The cows were very narrow-chested, their back was sagging, the sacrum hanging down. In addition, the muscles were not particularly strong, which gave me lean weight, and individuals of the species suffered from too high legs. By crossing for more than a hundred years, the main defects of the exterior were almost leveled and now the characteristic of the breed is as follows:
- milk orientation of the species;
- more developed muscles compared with the first representatives of the breed;
- good endurance in relation to high air temperatures;
- strong immunity.
Let us dwell in more detail on the appearance of individuals of the red steppe cow. It was mentioned above that the modern red steppe is the owner of magnificent muscles. Nevertheless, the main purpose of these rural darlings is the production of milk, therefore, for butchers, experts recommend choosing other breeds that show higher weight indicators.
The average weight of an adult steppe cow ranges from 470 to 530 kg. A well-fed bull weighs about 740-860 kg. In rare cases, its tribal congener can reach a mass of 1200 kg. It is light weight that allows females to produce milk productively. Red-skinned calves are born medium-sized and very dependent on their mother.
Large-horned representatives of the genus are animals, whose head is quite light, and its shape is sometimes elongated. The chest of individuals is shallow, flat, rarely red. Both the cow and the bull have a narrow, slightly long neck. The red steppe cow is characterized by a long and even back, sharp withers, and a powerful and mobile lower back. The problem of the breed is a poorly developed ass, which sometimes leads to the appearance of defects, for example, hypoxia. The legs of cows of this species are smooth and strong, so they are very stable on different surfaces and easily overcome obstacles.
The steppe breed of cows has a developed glandular udder, which holds a large amount of milk. The color is mostly red, but sometimes calves of a light red and dark red palette are born. Bulls are usually darker than the female half of the species. The average height of cows of the red steppe breed at the withers is about 125-133 cm. Numerous photos for a more accessible acquaintance with the appearance of the described individual can be found in the public domain on the Internet. A good reason to choose an individual cattle of this particular breed is a highly developed reproductive function.
Red-skinned calves are not very large and very dependent on their mother. Their weight ranges from 24-33 kg. But with proper maintenance, after six months, the baby grows to 180 kg.
As for the notorious milkiness of the species, it depends on the place of residence of a particular individual and the conditions of its maintenance. The average milk yield is 2500-5000 liters of milk per year. These are quite high indicators, especially in comparison with representatives of other species, especially since the quality of milk does not suffer from its quantity and gives fat content of up to 3.6%. A tribal representative of the species, with proper care, may even increase these numbers. In addition, the milk of individuals of this species is characterized by high nutritional value, saturation with microelements and excellent taste. And this means that breeding cows of the red steppe breed is fertile soil for any farmer.
The future owner of a red steppe cow can be sure that he will not incur high material costs, because for the most part individuals are unpretentious. Especially if next to the main habitat there is a pasture with grass, which makes up the main diet of cows. Vegetation is a valuable product from a biological point of view. However, the farmer should pay attention to the fact that in search of a suitable grazing site, cattle should not be driven away too far.
The fact is that every kilometer of a cow’s path can be transferred to 1 liter of milk. It is important to monitor what kind of water the pet drinks. Good lactation is possible with regular intake of clean and fresh fluids. Cows of the red steppe breed have high adaptive properties, so they tolerate heat well. But in winter, the optimum temperature for maintenance is 10-13 ° C. At the same time, the room should be dry, clean, well ventilated, without drafts. Even in the cold season, experts recommend organizing small livestock walks.
The summer diet of the red steppe cow, as already mentioned, consists of grass and pasture. But for the winter, of course, have to prepare a large amount of hay. In urgent need, one third of the food can be replaced with straw due to the unpretentiousness of the breed. Experienced farmers advise, in addition to the grass part, to diversify the winter menu of pets with feed varieties of root crops. It is important to monitor the quality of the food that is offered to the cow. If it is spoiled or has an unpleasant smell, then you risk getting milk with the same characteristics. To maintain the health of the nurse, she needs to be given multivitamin preparations or complexes periodically. They must contain vitamins A, D, E. To eliminate the sodium deficiency that may arise as a result of plant nutrition, you can give salt.
One of the features of the breed is its strong immunity - the red steppe breed of cows steadily receives viral attacks. But this is not at all a reason to refuse the standard vaccination of animals against diseases such as foot and mouth disease, anthrax and emkar. Depending on the situation, it is possible to organize preventive measures aimed at combating ticks and larvae of the gadfly.
In general, raising red steppe cows is a very profitable business for rural residents, farmers, and breeding farms. The unpretentiousness, resistance and milkiness of the representatives of the species made cattle one of the most popular cattle breeds in the whole post-Soviet space! If you want your farm to have a “productive” burenka, a red steppe breed of cows, this is what you need!