Features of pruning grapes in spring
A good yield of grapes depends on the quality of the implementation of care measures. One of the most important procedures is pruning grapes in spring. The condition of the vine, as well as the quality and quantity of the crop, depends on how it is carried out.
Features of pruning grapes in spring
The Importance of Pruning Grapes
Grapes love warmth and sun. It is constantly growing and developing, spreading shoots in all directions. The randomness and unevenness of young branches leads to problems in the formation of ocelli. Self-development of culture, neglect of the formation lead to the appearance of empty flowers, and they guarantee a poor harvest. Berries become small and lose their taste.
To avoid a poor harvest, pruning of grapes in spring and autumn is necessary. The bush is formed already from the age of one.
In the spring, the purpose of pruning is to redirect the plant's nutrients from the young upper branches to stronger, ready to bear fruit. Other important features of pruning in the spring are associated with thinning of standard and non-standard bushes, as well as with the preservation of varietal traits of the culture. To get a good tasty crop is real, only by pruning according to the rules. Only unnecessary parts of the shoots are removed.
Autumn pruning no less affects yield and is necessary for the formation of vines in the next seasons. To increase productivity in the fall, only cover varieties are trimmed (Isabella, Lydia, etc.).
Sharpened secateurs make pruning easier
Having decided to cut the grapes, in the spring you should take care of the preparatory measures. It is important to prepare the necessary tool, sharpen and disinfect it, waiting for a favorable time to start working the garden.
To organize grape pruning in the spring, it is important for beginners to understand the components of the bush and the significance that they have for the formation of the plant. Only after obtaining theoretical knowledge do they begin to form bushes of the plant.
In determining the constituent parts of the bush, great attention is paid to its age. So, the grape bush is divided into 3 components. These include:
- annual shoots;
- biennial shoots;
- old shoots (three years or more).
Given the external developmental features, shoots can have branches - sleeves. On each of them there are fruit links, characterized by small processes with 2-4 eyes. One shoot also grows, the number of eyes on which is greater than on the others. Branches become only previously fruiting shoots.
Parts of the plant grown from last year’s wood are fruiting. The processes that appear on the branches of a three-year (4 or 5-year-old) shoot are spinning tops. You can get a crop from them only after a season, if you cut them in the spring.
Trimming young grapes in spring helps knowledge of plant parts. Their age is distinguished by color. In a biennial shoot, the bark color is gray or brown. The one year old is golden. Annual shoots grow out of the replacement buds found on the 2-year-old parts of the seedling.
Favorable spring formation time
The start time of spring work depends on the climatic conditions of crop cultivation. In temperate regions, gardening begins in early March. The dried branches are removed, and the plants themselves are treated with a solution of copper sulfate.
Recommended deadlines for trimming are from mid-March. Started at this time is completed due to the onset of the sap flow, which often occurs in late March or early April.
Certain nuances relate to vineyards located near lakes and rivers. Growing crops in such places often leads to more extensive damage to plants, so more attention has to be paid to such stands.
Before pruning the grapes, in the spring, pay attention to preparatory measures. This is especially true for the tool. Work requires a pruner and a regular saw.
The cutting tool must be sharp and clean. The readiness of the pruning shears and saws for gardening is checked as follows:
- take a cutting tool and a regular sheet of paper;
- fold the sheet in half and pass it along the blade;
- if the paper is easily cut, the tool is sharp.
It is necessary to cut the grapes in spring when the air temperature is set above 5 ° C. Before going to the garden, the cutting tool is wiped with an alcohol-containing product.
We independently create a form of growth of grapes
Step-by-step instructions for forming a bush:
- The slice is performed at right angles. This contributes to faster healing of the cut.
- No matter what pruning scheme the gardener chooses, the first to remove all dry and frozen branches.
- Long branches do not leave. For the effective development of the plant, 7-12 buds are enough.
- The removal of the annual shoot, which has already carried away, is done carefully so as not to damage parts of the lignified branch of the plant.
- Ready for active fruiting is a vine with a thickness of 6-8 cm. More thinner and fatliquoring branches are removed.
After completing the work, the plant is able to seem small and rare. After 1-2 months, a green mass appears, and new shoots and inflorescences grow with it. The description of the procedure for forming the bush depends on the method chosen by the gardener.
Features of the formation of the bush
For the correct formation of the bush, its age must be taken into account. Young plants grow and spread on trellises, arches, etc. The plant is formed according to one of the schemes: standard or non-standard pruning.
Important are the features of the development of culture itself. Most often form plants whose age is 3-4 years. It is then that “sleeves” are distinguished and everything necessary is done for their development and the appearance of inflorescences.
The gardener determines the grape pruning scheme in spring. With the standard type, a powerful trunk is formed, from which the sleeves are diverted. The purpose of the second is to form the shoulders from the basal head.
This method is effective only when growing non-covering culture. It is important that the plants are frost-resistant.
Formation by this method is carried out from the first year after planting a seedling in the ground:
- At 1 year, the top is cut into 2 eyes (count from the root). The remaining young shoots are also removed.
- For 2 years, do not touch the shtamb. Attention is paid only to last year's parts of the plant. The most powerful one is cut so that 7-12 kidneys remain on it, 2-3 eyes are left on the rest.
- At 3 years old, they pay attention to the height and shape of the plant. The sleeves are shortened by 2 kidneys, after they are tied. A short knot is used to make a knot of substitution, shortening it by 2 buds, and on the second leave 7-8 eyes.
- For 4 years, the upper arms and extra processes are cut off.
- At year 5, everything is removed except the branches that form the fruit link.
- At year 6, the knot of substitution is cut into 2 kidneys. The arrow is shortened to 6-7 eyes.
The main advantage of this method of formation is the economy of space with a potentially high yield. The stamping is effective in growing wine grapes: it helps to get a rich harvest, while maintaining the varietal qualities of the plant.
Formation without stem
After forming without a stem in spring, the first crop is obtained after 3 years. The main thing is to adhere to a number of rules:
- In the first year, dried and rotten parts of the plant are removed. Most of the young growth is also removed. Only 2 sprouts remain, which are shortened 3 cm above 2 buds.
- In the second year, 60% of young growth is removed. Of the 2 remaining sprouts last year, only 2 vines leave, which are shortened by 2-3 buds.
- In the third year, fruit links are formed. The knot of substitution is cut into 2-3 eyes, and the fruit arrow into 7-8 eyes.
A few knots of substitution leave: they are necessary for the development of the plant. Fruit bearing branches are also needed.
The formation of old plants
The formation of an already mature plant in the spring is intended to regulate parts of the plant. This stimulates renewal.
Cut off as prolific branches, and damaged or weak parts. They also remove the fat: they consume too many nutrients and do not give a crop.
We cut damaged branches
Weather grapes sometimes interfere with spring pruning of grapes. In some regions, there are winters leading to frostbite of certain parts of a young or old bush.
If the grower noticed damage on the bush in early spring, it is important to restore the plant in a timely manner.
The most common problems and recommendations for pruning in emergency situations:
- The bushes froze due to the cold in winter. Perform incisions on the kidneys. Brown or black color indicates frostbite. If there are less than 80% of these eyes, the fruit links should contain more kidneys than with conventional pruning. With more damage, you will have to remove all frozen shoots and sleeves.
- Frostbite root system. It is necessary to gain access to the roots by carefully digging the ground. Notch the root. Brown indicates frostbite. Frozen parts are removed, leaving roots damaged slightly.
- Hail damage. It is expressed by the loss of part of the leaves. Young shoots cut to 1-2 eyes. In April-May, emerging young shoots are thinned out.
- Spring frosts. They threaten damage to annual shoots and buds. The best remedy is a short pruning of the vine.
By taking appropriate measures, it will be possible to restore the intact parts of the plant, preserve the chances of harvest and prepare the grapes for flowering. All pruning operations are carried out in March, until sap flow begins.
Care after trimming
After carrying out spring pruning of grapes, sap flow is expected and bushes are inspected. Often wounds form at the cutting sites, the plant cries. Assistance should be provided as soon as possible, especially for large sections.
If the plant is crying, it is treated:
- having covered a place of a cut with paint;
- its bay with wax;
- by spraying with a 1.5% solution of magnesium chlorate;
- having treated with garden varieties;
- dragging the vine with wire.
The last procedure should be performed most carefully. It is important not to overtighten the wire to prevent the vines from drying out. And the wire itself should be soft (use aluminum or copper). They wrap it around the vine in a place located 1-2 cm from the cut. As soon as the juice stops flowing out of the wound, the wire can be loosened.
Other care steps are simple. After spring pruning of grapes, they monitor regular top dressing, watering, and tying. The latter is most important, especially during fruiting. Reliably fixed shoots will help the plant withstand the burden of forming and ripening brushes.
Growing on an arch or pergola
Some gardeners prefer to grow crops on the arch or in the gazebo. In the desire to get a shaded area, beginners can make a mistake: plant a cover grape variety. For such growing conditions, only frost-resistant varieties are suitable. Circumcision of such plants is carried out, paying attention to some nuances.
For beginners, it is better to give preference to wild varieties. A girl's grade is also suitable. Such plants are unpretentious in care, do not require garter, cling to any support, protrusion or surface, braiding the walls of the arbor or arch. Maintenance of such plants requires minimal. In the spring, old, dried or damaged shoots are removed. There are no restrictions on removing overgrown vines.
If the plant is grown only for decorative purposes, they do not pay special attention to the formation. Even neglected wild grapes give a person a welcome shadow. Shapelessness spoils the aesthetic appearance of the arbor or arch.
For the correct pruning of grapes in spring, the variety of the crop, its age and the formation time are taken into account. Especially in need of pruning varieties of non-covering type. Only unnecessary parts of the shoots are removed. This allows you to avoid mistakes and maintain the health of the planted bushes.
Spring pruning is different for young and old shrubs. In the case of the former, they create one strong shoot for the sleeve (the rest is removed as much as possible). For the old, pruning is carried out for 3-4 or 5-6 eyes, necessary for the formation of fruit arrows and further development of the plant.