Features pruning grapes
The basic care rules for good growth and development of grape culture include not only the proper watering and top dressing of plants, but also their formation. Grape pruning is an important agricultural technique, the main purpose of which is the correct distribution of plant forces to increase productivity and the development of shoots.
Features pruning grapes
Dates of work
The timing of the formation depends on the region growing the vineyard. Pruned grapes are taken in spring, autumn and even summer. The procedure is carried out only in warm, calm weather. The air temperature in spring and autumn should not fall below 5 ° C. If you trim at the wrong time, there is a risk of damage to the bush.
When the time comes, it will be necessary to remove the garden pruner and saw from the tools, grind and wipe them with antiseptic compounds. Preliminary preparation is no less important for effective formation than knowledge of the rules and schemes for its implementation.
Spring formation is often used in the cultivation of non-covering grapes contained in an arch or in an arbor. Spring formation is common in regions with cold winters. If in January and February there were large frosts, there is a possibility of frostbite of thin branches. All frostbitten parts of the plant are removed.
Work begins when the vine is still not flowing juice. That is, until the phase of awakening of the kidneys, followed by the formation of leaves. If you cut the grapes later, with the beginning of the growing season or before flowering, you will have to forget about a good harvest.
The time for formation is selected individually for each region. In the northern months, May is a favorable month for starting work in the garden. In the south, it’s different. So, the well-known winegrower N. Puzenko successfully applied pruning of the vine at the end of February. During this period, he does not cry. But even if the juice is secreted from the place of the cut, it does not drip onto the kidney, flowing to the low side of the hemp (oblique cut). The main thing is not to cut the grapes at sub-zero temperatures.
The summer formation consists of breaking out unnecessary shoots, pinching and tweezing.
This pruning is called “green”. It is carried out for sanitary purposes. Circumcision of the shoot from thin stepsons and unnecessary leaves makes it possible to get enough sunlight for the fruiting plant.
With proper sanitary formation of vines in summer, the total yield increases, and the cultivated crop itself receives all the necessary conditions for growth and development. It is carried out in any month of summer. In the South, it is permissible to do this in May.
Autumn formation is suitable for growing cover crops. Proper pruning of grapes allows the plants to have a good wintering and avoid mistakes when sheltering them.
Autumn formation consists of 2 stages. The purpose of the first is to remove foliage after harvesting. The second stage consists of removing unnecessary branches. The main thing is to finish it before the first frosts appear. At low temperatures, grape pruning is difficult. The vine will become brittle and will break when you try to cut it.
It is important to cut the grape seedling in a certain way: short, long, medium or mixed. Each method of pruning grapes has its own peculiarities, which it is important to understand for the beginning winegrower even before planting seedlings.
Formation is important for the plant
When choosing a method of operation, they are guided by the variety of culture, as well as by the age of the vine and its neglect. For proper pruning of a bush of grapes, compliance with the rules for each type of procedure is required:
- Short. Branches are greatly shortened, creating knots of substitution. Only 2-4 eyes are required to be left. This is a rejuvenating pruning, because its goal is to create conditions for the growth of new shoots.
- Medium. Each annual shoot must contain up to 8 eyes. In total, up to 50 buds are left on the plant.
- Long. It is used less often, because it is not applicable to many varieties. It is suitable for Asian culture. It is also used for raisins and some other table grape varieties. On the branches leave up to 15 eyes.
- Mixed. This is the most popular method, including elements of short and long formation. Some of the young branches are removed “by knot” (ie, up to 1-2 buds), and the other part is formed for fruiting.
The irregular shape of the planted plant threatens with poor growth of seedlings, unpreparedness for active fruiting and ripening of fruits. Formation is important in accordance with established standards.
Trim planted grapes begin at the age of one. The first formation is carried out in the spring. Its technology changes every year until the fruitful period.
In total, there are 2 schemes for molding a young bush. Trimming planted grapes is recommended in a standard or non-standard way. For an adult plant, developed and fruiting, there are other molding rules.
Using the stamp method, it is better to trim winter-hardy grapes of non-covering varieties.
The first standard pruning of grapes is carried out in the first spring, after planting a young seedling. It is repeated annually until the culture reaches the age of five. Work is performed according to the instructions:
- The formation of an annual bush is produced by 2 eyes. The task is to grow 2 strong shoots before reaching the age of two.
- A biennial seedling requires the formation of one shoot - the future stem. Most tall pruned for 2-3 kidneys. The second is cut short, up to 3 kidneys. He will be the backup.
- The formation of a three-year plant is reduced to the creation of "cordon shoulders" (sleeves). All young shoots are removed. Only 2 top shoots are left. One is cut into 2 eyes. The second - at 5-6.
- From the 4th year they create the conditions for the growth of the previously created sleeve. Leave the strongest branches, the rest are removed.
- On the 5th year, the base of the fruit bearing link is formed. The grown branches are cut to 2-3 buds.
Starting from 6 years old, forming is carried out in a mixed way: short and long trimming. The lower shoot is cut shortly, to the third eye, and the one above is cut in a long way - 6-8 kidneys are left. The big shoot in the coming years will be a fruitful vine.
For non-covering varieties, vertical binding to a wire or at an angle is suitable. Covering varieties of culture are best tied with a light arc. Clipped grapes in this way, already 5 years after planting, please the owner with a delicious, plentiful harvest.
Suitable for cover varieties. If a stalk rooted in the fall has given 2-3 shoots by spring, they are not touched. In a favorable time for sheltering crops, young shoots are bent to the ground and dug up with a layer of earth. Only next spring do they work with secateurs.
Another method is the French Guyot formation. It is distinguished by the need to work with secateurs in the first year with the appearance of 1 or 2 young shoots. Favorable days for the formation - the beginning of March.
Stamp pruning is performed as follows:
- In the first year. If 1 shoot is formed, it is shortened by 4 eyes, if 2, then by 2 eyes.
- In the second year, only 4 of the emerged shoots are left. They are cut into 2 eyes.
- In the third year, the formation of fruit links occurs. 2 vines are left on each of the sleeves. The lower one is shortened to 2 eyes, and the second is cut in a long way. On the upper vine leave 7-15 buds.
In subsequent years, pruning of young grapes is based on the preservation of 4 sleeves with fruit links. The plant is given a fan shape. The trimmed bush, according to all rules, gives a good harvest already for 4-5 years after planting, subject to proper care.
Formation of a fruiting bush
It is important to trim
This grape pruning scheme is suitable only for adult bushes. Work with a fruiting bush is characterized by regular renewal of the fruit vine and a knot of substitution. An old, frustrated powerful shoot is cut to the knot of substitution. Newly grown vines are the material for the subsequent development and growth of the culture. The vine, located closer to the sleeve, is cut into 2 buds, and the second into 5-7.
For all subsequent years, pruning of a perennial plant comes down to a simple rule: they cut a shoot shortly, which is closer to the sleeve, and long - the upper vine. A faithfully trimmed bush for many years will delight the owner with a plentiful harvest.
Formation of a neglected plant
Launched grapes are pruned in the fall, when no leaves remain on the branches of the plant. Also, overgrown plants are formed in early spring. The first to remove all dry branches. After the plant is shaped.
When working in the vineyard, one rule is taken into account: the fruit link is made from annual processes. If the remaining branches are not enough to form the basis of the selected form, the procedure is repeated the next year.
Among the features of pruning grapes there is a place for non-standard cases. The most common problem encountered by beginning growers is the freezing of a bush in winter. Vineyards also suffer from spring frosts.
This is dangerous not only for varieties with poor frost resistance, but also for non-covering species of culture. If in March, when inspecting the vineyards, signs of frostbite were found, the plantations are resuscitated. This can only be done correctly after an inspection for damage.
The bush froze during wintering
The first thing to do is check the viability of the kidneys. Cuts are made on the eyes. The kidneys are examined from the base of the branch to the top. Favorable signs of a speedy recovery are green at the incision site. If the eyes are brown or black under the outer film, they are frozen and unable to recover. Examining the vine, determine the total percentage of dead kidneys.
If the number of frozen eyes does not exceed 80% of their total number, the plant will be saved. The main thing is to leave more eyes on the fruit links than with the usual pruning of the vine. If fruiting sleeves were formed in the fall, the crop will be obtained from them.
If more than 80% of the kidneys died, pruning of grapes in spring for beginners is carried out in 2 stages. Before the active sap flow begins, the first work is carried out: lifeless branches and sleeves are removed. When the vine gives the first green, carry out the second stage of formation - sanitization. All young shoots are removed.
It is more difficult if the bush is completely damaged. The death of all eyes requires an examination of the stepson's condition (they are more frost-resistant). If they also froze, fruit links are formed from shoots of the underground part of the stem or tops. If the bush in its aboveground part shows no signs of life, you will have to cut the planted grapes on a “black head”.
Frozen branches need to be removed
The grapes are dug in order to cut down the stem to its healthy part. If you sprinkle the received stump with earth, it will soon give a young shoot, which, with proper care, will develop into a full-fledged bush.
The roots are frozen
If the buds are completely dead, check the condition of the roots of the plant. They can be frostbite. In this case, the root system is carefully excavated (the depth of the pit should be different) in order to make incisions in different parts of it. White color indicates healthy roots. Partially frostbitten root will be brown, and completely dead - brown or black.
Take into account the diameter of the examined processes of the root system. If roots with a diameter of less than 3 mm are damaged in a frozen bush, the plantings are easy to save. Grape pruning is done to remove the load from the bush and use all its strength to recover.
The bush suffered from hail
Spring hail, which kills young shoots, is also dangerous for vineyards. If they are damaged, grapes can be cut to 1-2 kidneys. Later, shoots will appear from the cut shoots. Only strong young shoots leave, the rest is cleaned.
Carrying out such pruning of a bush of grapes after a spring hail helps to awaken sleeping buds. The growth of new shoots creates all the conditions for the appearance of the crop next summer.
The most dangerous for the planted crop are spring frosts, especially during the movement of juice in the vine. Even annual vines can suffer from such weather. It will be possible to revive the bush if a short pruning of the bush of grapes is carried out. It will create the conditions necessary to stimulate the growth of shoots from sleeping buds.
It is easier to reanimate a plant if only the greenery has suffered. In this case, it is required to shorten the annual shoots. Leaves in 2-3 eyes.
A detailed study of pruning patterns and their principles allows novice growers to prevent mistakes in caring for the crop. Studying the rules and following them allows you to turn the cultivation of grape culture into your favorite business.