Features of planting eggplant in open ground

To seedlings eggplant in the open ground should feel good, the plants provide heat. The bed is prepared in advance using fertilizers. When grown in sparse soil, bushes will not please a high yield.

Features of planting eggplant in open ground

Departure Dates

Early varieties are most suitable for growing eggplant in open ground. When the seedlings reach a height of 15-20 cm and 5-7 true leaves appear on them, the plants are ready for planting. Seedlings should have an age of 60 to 90 days, depending on the variety and timing of sowing seeds. Sometimes buds are already formed on it.

Eggplant is planted in open ground at a soil temperature of 18 ° C, air temperature 20-30 ° C. It is advisable that by this time the threat of frost has passed, because plants do not withstand low temperatures.

Planting seedlings in central Russia is better in late May - early June.

Soil preparation

Culture prefers a well-lit and warm place, protected from drafts. The soil for planting eggplant seedlings must meet the following characteristics:

  • breathability;
  • friability;
  • fertility
  • neutral acidity.

Elevated pH levels are neutralized with dolomite flour or chalk.

The best predecessors for eggplant are cabbage, carrots, onions, garlic, gourds and legumes. Do not plant in the area where solanaceous plants grew before.

Autumn preparation

Soil preparation should begin in the fall. To do this, they dig it up on a bayonet shovel, remove the roots of perennial plants. Fertilize with fresh cow dung (1 bucket / m²).

Additives to the soil:

  • clay and loamy - a bucket of sand, 2 buckets of peat and about 0.5 buckets of half-ripened sawdust are added per 1 m²;
  • peat - add a bucket of sod, sand and humus;
  • sand - give 3 buckets of clay soil, 2 buckets of peat and humus, a bucket of wood sawdust.

After making additives, the soil is leveled, slightly compacted. In early spring, when the soil dries out a little, it is loosened with a rake.

Spring training

If it was not possible to prepare the land before winter, do it in the spring (late April - early May). You need to feed the rotted manure, which is added during digging. During the procedure, caterpillars, larvae and pests are collected. Also, for each square meter, another 2 cups of wood ash, 1 tsp. urea, 1 tbsp. l superphosphate and potassium sulfate.

The soil is loosened before planting several times to preserve moisture in it, especially after rains. At the same time, the initial seedlings of weeds are removed. Before planting, the soil is leveled.

Planting seedlings

Planting eggplant seedlings in open ground has its own characteristics. To grow a good harvest, you should familiarize yourself with all the rules of the process.

On the bed they make holes a little deeper than the height of the containers with seedlings. The distance between them should be 30-40 cm, between the rows - 60 cm. 1-1.5 liters of water are introduced into the holes, the ground should become mud-like.

Take out planting in the evening

Planting plants is better in the evening or in cloudy weather. The next morning they are shaded with paper caps. Seedlings are carefully removed from the vessel so as not to damage the plants. To simplify the task will help preliminary watering. Planting seedlings is with an earthen lump. Deepen them to the first pair of real leaves. After this, the plants are covered with soil, slightly compacted and mulched with dry soil or peat. Sometimes when planting next to the eggplants, pegs are installed, to which the bushes are then tied as necessary.

After planting, the plants are covered with plastic wrap, pulling it over the arcs. When warm weather is established (nighttime indicators should be at least 15 ° C), the protection is removed.

Sowing seeds in open ground

Eggplants in open ground are grown and seedling-free method. Seeds are planted at a soil temperature of 15-16 ° C. Sowing dates fall around the beginning of May. Before sowing the grains, they are soaked in warm water for 6 hours. After that, the seeds are laid out on a sieve and kept at a temperature of 18-25 ° C. Before planting, they are slightly dried.

When sowing, eggplant is given the seeds of other crops (radishes, lettuce). This is due to the fact that the "blue ones" sprout slowly, and other plants will act as the so-called beacons. Also, 30% of sieved humus ballast is added to the seed. The seeding rate is 0.2-0.3 g per 1 m².

Care

Secrets of agricultural technology require proper care of plants.

Watering

The soil is moistened regularly, preventing its drying out. The leaves of the culture are large and quickly evaporate moisture. Bushes especially need water during fruiting. But make it in moderation.

Lack of fluid leads to the following consequences:

  • flowers and ovaries fall;
  • the grown fruits are minced;
  • vegetables are deformed.

Water should be settled and warm (at least 20˚С).

Loosening, weeding, hilling

When caring for eggplant in the open ground, an important point is the loosening of the earth. Do it after watering or rain. The embedment should not be deep - only 3-5 cm, so as not to damage the root system. These manipulations contribute to the saturation of the soil with oxygen.

When loosening, weed is removed, otherwise it will take on part of the nutrition and suppress the bushes. Hilling is also carried out, since the plant then forms additional roots. This increases its nutrition, therefore, contributes to a good harvest.

Top dressing

Fertilize vegetables should be several times a season. Many nitrogen-containing products harm fruiting.

Fertilizers are used in compliance with such deadlines and recommendations:

  1. The first top dressing 10-15 days after planting. 0.4-0.5 kg of mullein or fermented bird droppings, 10-15 g of superphosphate and the same amount of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers are applied per 1 m².
  2. The second feeding 20 days after the previous one. The amount of phosphorus and potassium preparations is increased by 1.5-2 times.
  3. The third feeding is at the beginning of fruiting. It is worth fertilizing with this solution: 60-80 g of urea and superphosphate, 20 g of potassium chloride, 10 l of water. Consumption - 1 watering can per 5 m².

After fertilizing, the soil is watered with clean water. This will prevent root burns. Eggplant care also involves the use of foliar top dressing. The prepared solutions should be of low concentration - several times less than when they are applied under the root. This method of fertilizer is used in the following situations:

  • in cool summers - they are sprayed with microelements;
  • when fatliquoring plants - treated with potassium;
  • with a lack of green mass - make nitrogen;
  • during flowering, boric acid is used.

Conclusion

Eggplant should be planted in open ground according to certain rules. Gardeners should consider that culture is thermophilic. In addition to the corresponding temperature, it has requirements for the structure and fertility of the soil.

Growing involves careful care - then the plants will develop well and tie the fruits.

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