Features of the hare
A hare, or on an armor. Lepus europaeus, is a rabbit-like mammal belonging to its large representatives.
A hare in a hare family can be recognized by its large size. In length, it often grows to 65-68 centimeters, and weight gains from 4 to 6 kilograms. The largest individuals, reaching a mass of up to 7 kilograms, are found in the northern and northeastern places of its habitat.
The description of the animal includes its main features of the appearance of the species:
- regardless of its large size, his constitution is fragile,
- differs from white hare in longer (up to 14 centimeters) ears and a larger (7-14 centimeters) tail in the form of a wedge, covered with black fur on top,
- the hind legs of the cynomolgus differ from the paws of the whites — they are shorter in the foot than the whites, which is explained by the habitats of the cocks, where the snow cover is shallow and with a hard base.
Rabbit hair is shiny, with curls, painted on the belly in white, the shade on the sides is darker than on the dorsal. External classification is clearly visible in the photo. The color of the animal depends on the season:
- during the summer, the hare is painted in shades of ocher - gray, brown, red or brown, with dark streaks folded with the tips of the undercoat,
- in winter, the animal changes its color to lighter, but unlike the white, it is never white, their head and ears at the ends, the front of the back are always dark.
With the onset of spring and autumn, seasonal molting takes place among hare hares. In this case, the spring change of fur is delayed by 75-80 days, starting closer to the end of March and ending in May, and passes in the direction from the head to the tail section. Wools that have grown over the summer during autumn from September change to a thicker winter fur, but unlike spring already in the opposite direction - from the thigh through the ridge to the front.
The main habitat where the grouse live is the steppe, tundra thickets and forest-steppes. It can be found in the European steppe massifs, on the North African continent and in Asia.
The northern boundary of the range of habitat of the grouse passes through the Irish and Scottish territories, in the range of Sweden and Finland. The southern border covers Turkey and Iran, the northern part of Arabia and Africa, the Transcaucasian region and the north of Kazakhstan.
In North America, the hare was settled artificially, brought in 1893 through New York. In 1912, they tried to settle him in the Canadian province of Ontario. Having acclimatized in Australia and New Zealand, it was included in the list of animal pests.
In Russia, this species can be seen throughout European territory; they live all the way from the Ladoga northern shores and Lake Onega, and live along the Northern Dvina River. The boundary of the animal’s residence passes through the Kirov and Perm regions, capturing the regions of the Ural Mountains, then through the Caspian Sea and in the north to Karaganda. There are resettlement of grouse in southern Siberia and the Far East. Attempts by scientists to acclimatize the Rusak in the areas of Buryatia ended in failure.
It happens that in summer, grouse climb to a mountain altitude from 1.5 to 2.0 kilometers, descending from heights only when winter sets in.
Hare hare prefer outdoor areas for movement and life in the form of fields and meadows, clearings and large clearings. In deep coniferous forests, the animal lives extremely rarely, mostly live in deciduous forests and woodlands.
In forest-steppes and steppes, hares choose agricultural crops of grain, coppices and shrubs. Very often, animals tend to move closer to settlements and natural bodies of water.
The number of hares today is about several million. Their life expectancy and the number of individuals are primarily affected by weather and food factors. For many individuals, snowy winter seasons with blizzards, which do not allow animals to feed, become fatal. Adversely affect the size of the population of grouse and spring with alternating heat and frost, in which the early hatched broods die. Among the natural enemies - the hunters for the crows - wolves, foxes and lynxes.
Habits and role in human life
The habits of the grouse characterize them as settled animals living in a certain territory. They prefer not to leave the habitable area if there is a sufficient amount of feed in this place. In other regions, grouses move daily in search of food, covering tens of kilometers. Sometimes there are seasonal migrations towards settlements and less snowy to the edges.
The activity of the crayfish begins at dusk and at night, and in the first part of the night and just before morning. In the afternoon they can be activated only for the duration of the rut (mating).
In the summer, grouse lying looks like a shallow hole, hidden from prying eyes under a bush. At the same time, minks do not build permanent minks. On vacation, they dig in temporary shelters - daytime minks that save animals from the annoying heat. As a place of rest, hares can use other people's burrows - badgers or foxes.
Raccoon hares run faster than the whites, developing a speed of up to 60 kilometers per hour, while tracking long jumps, confusing tracks. They belong to good swimmers. The voice of the Cossacks cannot be heard only in danger, being caught or wounded, animals can make piercing sounds.
The female rossak calls to itself a rabbit with a silent cry, and the male, in alarm, only makes sounds with clicking teeth. As communications with each other, they often use paw percussions, the sound of which resembles playing a drum.
In the spring, the grouse is lying on high surfaces warmed by the sun, and in winter, hares move into deep snow with a swarm of burrows up to two meters long. Often, in the fall, animals lay in haystacks.
Mermaid for man
In natural conditions, a rodent lives for 6-7 years, with rare exceptions, life expectancy can be up to 12 years. It belongs to commercial animals and serves as an object of hunting with hounds and sports, being valuable for fur and meat. Skins of crayons go to high-quality felt and for tailoring some types of fur products.
In many countries, these animals are classified as agricultural pests, since hares can damage winter crops, damage fruit trees, gnawing up to 15 plantings overnight.
In addition to the damage to agriculture, gnats are among the animals that carry serious diseases, such as coccidiosis, pastelrez, tularemia, and brucellosis.
Feed ration and reproduction
Among the main food for summer hares in the summer are vegetation and tree shoots. Animals prefer foliage and stems, but sometimes they can feast on the roots of shrubs. With the onset of the summer period, hares pass to seeds.
In summer, the feed ration becomes much richer and includes wild dandelions and tansy, alfalfa and clover, as well as cultivated buckwheat, cereals and sunflowers. Among the goodies for crayfish are vegetables and melons.
Not all seeds are completely digested by animal organisms, thus, brown hare act as seed distributors along the trajectory of their movement.
The basis of winter nutrition is made up of the same seeds and grass rags, the remaining garden crops, which the hares begin to look for and get from under the snow layer. In addition, animals feed on apple, maple and pear wood in winter, and gnaw at willow and aspen.
The breeding period of grouse is directly dependent on their habitat.
During the breeding season from March to September, Western European gullies manage to bring 4 hereditary broods, some even five each. In a more favorable climate, the reproduction of hares occurs throughout the calendar year.
On Russian territory, a rabbit race lasts from February to March, then from April to May and the third in June.
Pregnancy in females of a brown rut lasts 45 days, the brood can count from 1 to 9 rabbits. This difference in the number of offspring is associated with reproductive abilities - the fewer reproduction cycles, the more the female brings rabbits.
Bunnies of rodents are born sighted and with fur.
The weight of the average newborn rabbit is 80-150 grams. By the fifth day of life, rabbits begin to move actively, at the age of two weeks they gain weight up to 400 grams, actively eating grass and by the age of one month become completely independent.