Features of the growth of orchids

Many do not know that the orchid flower is an epiphytic plant. In nature, it grows on trees in moist forests. But some species settle on mountain cliffs or on land. Florists attribute them to capricious cultures. Representatives of the orchid family are successfully grown at home, but the conditions of detention should be close to natural.

Features of the growth of orchids

How to grow in the wild

Miracle plant grows in different regions. They count 35 thousand species, and hybrid varieties - about 45 thousand. Some species live up to 100 years.

An ideal environment for an orchid is a humid and warm climate, so it is more common in the jungle. Feels good in the shade, where direct sunlight does not fall. Some species grow only on one island, they are not found anywhere else. For example, Angrekum grows only in Madagascar.

According to the characteristic, the culture is perennial and belongs to grassy types. Most orchids feed on aerial roots with rotten plant debris that accumulates on the bark. The root system takes part in photosynthesis.

It features elegant buds of different sizes and colors. The largest orchid flowers have 90 cm long petals (Paphiopedilum sanderianum). There are varieties that reach 20 m in height. The smallest flower of the Platystele jungermannoides orchid is 1 mm in diameter.

The shape of the plants depends on the variety and method of pollination (by insects or hummingbirds). According to the type of branching, two groups are distinguished:

  • monopodial - the apical growth point is active throughout the life of the shoot;
  • sympodial - the shoot grows to a certain length, then dies or forms an inflorescence.

The structure of culture has features that help it to adapt to different growing conditions. Thickened leaves and shoots serve as a kind of reservoir of water.

Interesting Facts

The origin of the name orchids is associated with the philosopher Theophrastus. As a result of scientific research, he came across an unfamiliar flower with roots in the form of a double bulb and called "orchis", which in Greek means "testicle".

In Europe, culture appeared thanks to the English botanist, who in 1731 sent a dried flower from the Bahamas. He planted it, suggesting that life was still preserved in the tubers. After some time, the culture came to life and bloomed.

When flowering, the smell of orchids is not always felt. Only some of its types produce a pleasant, rich aroma. But there are also varieties whose flowers smell like mold, rotted meat. They are not suitable for home use.

There are species that are valued not for the beauty of the flowers, but for the decorativeness of the leaves. Botanists do not distinguish them in a separate group. Orchidists do this. The leaf plates of such plants are distinguished by brightly colored veins that look spectacularly under the light of a lamp.

Interesting Facts:

  1. Culture flowers do not cause allergic reactions.
  2. Cut arrows stand in the water longer than other colors.
  3. The world's largest collection of the orchid family is collected in the Singapore Orchid National Park - 60 thousand species and 400 varieties.
  4. Vanilla is the thin, long fruit of the Vanilla Planiflora orchid, which looks like a vine.
  5. The most expensive flower in the world is the Kinabalu Gold orchid, which blooms only after reaching the age of 15. The cost of one escape is about 5 thousand dollars.
  6. In China, culture is used to expel evil spirits, in India - as a protection against the bites of poisonous snakes.
  7. There is a predatory representative of this family. She eats only insects.

Growing at home

Features of the growth of orchids

Since the orchid is recognized as the queen of flowers, many want to have it in their collection. For beginners, growers are best suited for easy care ampel orchid phalaenopsis or bush dendrobium.

Flower selection

Before buying a plant, it must be inspected. Signs of a healthy look:

  • the petals are bright and resilient;
  • leaves - bright green, without spots, cobwebs, mold;
  • roots - green or light, silvery (depending on soil moisture), fleshy and elastic.

If you have to transport home in the cold season, the plant is wrapped in several layers of paper, and in the frost they are additionally covered with a plastic bag.

Now souvenirs from Thailand have become popular - Thai orchid sprouts, as well as everything necessary for their life, are placed in a glass bottle. Upon returning to their native country, tourists wait until the sprouts occupy the entire volume of the vessel. Then they smash it and plant the culture in a flower pot.

Quarantine

After purchase, the plant needs time to adapt. The first two weeks it should stand alone - separately from other indoor plants. At this time, reduce watering, do not feed, prevent direct sunlight. Then they gradually resume the hydration of the substrate, accustom the flower to the sun.

Optimal conditions

Orchid conditions affect its appearance and health.

Illumination

The place is allocated according to the variety of plants, which are shade-loving and photophilous.

When placed on a windowsill, it is better to choose an eastern or western window. On it, in the cold season, the lighting is good, and in the summer direct sunlight does not fall. This will prevent sunburn. When the plant blooms, sometimes it is cleaned deep into the room. But after the end of the flowering period, they return to their original place.

At home, shelves or shelves are installed near the southwest or southeast window at a distance of no more than 1 m. If you put the pot on the south window, then it is shaded in the summer.

Any orchid needs light

When placing the plant on the northern window, it is illuminated in the autumn-winter period with the help of phytolamps. One of the basic requirements is a 12-hour light day. The distance between the lamp and the flower should be at least 20-30 cm.

Illumination is adjusted by inspecting the leaves. With a lack of light, they darken, with an excess - they turn yellow, covered with brown and dry spots. If there is a need to rearrange the flower pot, then the position to the light should be the same. It is undesirable to move the culture during the formation of the peduncle.

Temperature mode

Growing an orchid at home, take into account all its preferences. These include optimal temperature. Cultural varieties are divided into the following groups:

  • thermophilic;
  • those who prefer average temperatures;
  • cold-loving.

Accordingly, plants need indicators from 12 to 25 ° C. In most cases, orchids bloom if the night and day temperatures differ by 3-5 ° C. You should also regularly air the room, but the flower should not fall under a draft. If it is frosty outside, the pot is removed from the window when it is opened.

Often, decorative Florariums of a special design are created for growing, which have a ventilation and heating system. Thanks to them, they withstand one temperature during the day, and another at night. Florarium is also created in a glass, in an aquarium.

Air humidity

It is better to contain an orchid at rates of 60-80%. If the air in the apartment is too dry, you should spray the orchid and wipe the leaves with a wet sponge. To increase humidity, it is worth keeping a flower pot near the aquarium. An indoor fountain or humidifier is also used.

Care

To plant an orchid pleased with a healthy look and good flowering, you should properly care for it.

Watering

Humidification of the substrate is made when the pot becomes very light. The lack of moisture on the walls of the transparent pot, as well as the clarification of the roots, testifies to the need for water. Water the culture in several ways:

  • by sprinkling: the plant is watered in the shower until the substrate gets wet;
  • immersion of the pot in a basin of water for 15-20 minutes;
  • from a watering can: with this watering, make sure that the substrate is moistened evenly.

Humidify the substrate in the morning or afternoon, so that the plant dries out by evening. Watering is more frequent during active growth and in heat, and reduced during rest. After completing the procedure, excess moisture is allowed to expire. Water is removed from the growth point with a napkin. The violated irrigation regime threatens the development of various diseases.

Top dressing

The content of the culture involves the introduction of nutrients. They are used when shoots, peduncles, leaves are actively growing, but not during the dormant period. Thanks to fertilizers, orchids bloom and develop well.

They are fed with complex preparations marked "for orchids." Funds are added to a pre-moistened substrate 2 times a month. Strictly monitor their dosage, since an excess of substances reduces the immunity of the culture.

Flowering stimulation

If the orchid does not give flowers for a long time, it is worth stimulating this process. To this end, culture give way to a stressful situation. If you take it to a cooler place or reduce watering, the plant produces a new peduncle.

Transfer

Transplanted plant in cramped pot

Manipulation is performed every 2-3 years. An urgent transplant is needed with such indications:

  • the root system has sprouted through holes, it branches heavily or rots;
  • pests found in the substrate or it decomposed.

You need to start a transplant with soil preparation. In the store you can buy a ready-made mixture, which includes sawdust bark, sphagnum moss, peat. But in such a soil there is a risk of stagnation of water. It is better to plant in a pine bark.

The container for transplant take a slightly larger size. Large orchids are planted in pots, smaller - in blocks. Holes are made in the bottom of the vessel, drainage is laid at 1/3 of the height.

Recently, the pot-crown has gained popularity. Its advantages are the free access of oxygen to the roots and good ventilation. Minus - through the cracks, dust is pouring into the stand. It does not look aesthetically pleasing. Also, when watering, excess moisture is difficult to remove from the pan, since it is attached to sticks.

rules

The transplant is done step by step:

  • extract the flower from the pot;
  • roots are separated from the substrate;
  • dry and rotten areas are removed using scissors treated with alcohol;
  • places of slices sprinkled with brilliant green, activated carbon;
  • the plant is placed in a pot, slightly scroll;
  • fall asleep with a substrate.

Contraindications to the procedure - a blooming orchid. Some species require a garter to hold the crop upright. For this purpose, take a bamboo stick. So that the arrow does not break, they also use a special holder, which is sold in flower shops.

Pruning

Features of the process are pruning arrows using a garden pruner. It is not produced immediately after the end of the flowering period. It is worth waiting until the peduncle dries. If it is still green, the culture may again please flowers. All actions are performed with extreme caution so as not to damage the leaves and shoots. The processes after removal should be 2.5-3 cm long. The wounds need to be processed. Inventory is also disinfected.

If you want to rejuvenate an orchid, then it is worth making the following manipulations:

  • remove excess leaves;
  • clear the root system;
  • update the substrate.

Breeding

Propagation by separation of roots

Breeding is done in one of the following ways:

  • division of large plants (each part should have 2-3 bulbs and healthy roots);
  • lateral shoots (when the roots grow, cut shoots);
  • apical cuttings (cut off the apex so that it leaves several lively juicy aerial roots);
  • pseudobulbs;
  • by children (when the orchid has children, they are waiting for the formation of several leaves and roots, and then they plant it. To speed up the process, they build a greenhouse);
  • seeds (it is difficult to breed with this method at home).

Pests and diseases

Often the culture begins to hurt, and orchid bloom is at risk:

  • fungal: brown, gray, root, fusarium rot, anthracnose, powdery mildew, mold;
  • bacterial: bacterial spotting;
  • viral: mosaic spotting (in rare cases).

Fungal diseases are treated with one of the following fungicides: Fitosporin-M, Skor, Oksikhom, Radomil Gold, Topaz. If the orchid is flooded, the substrate is dried. Against bacterial - use bactericides or antibiotics, the affected areas are excised. Culture perishes from viral ailments; there is no way to save it.

Different insects can also harm:

  • aphid;
  • whitefly;
  • scale shield;
  • mealybug and others

If pests are detected, insecticides or such a folk remedy are used against them: 150 g of ground soap, 5 g of copper sulfate, 1 l of water.

Mistakes in leaving

Most of the problems due to care:

  1. Improper watering - if the flower has been poured, the root system gets wet, darkens and begins to rot, swelling forms, brown specks appear on the flowers. If you do not take action, the culture dies. When there is a lack of water, the leaves wrinkle, fade, and dry over time.
  2. Improper illumination - with a lack of light, the leaves do not reach a large size, buds do not form. Burns occur from direct sunlight. They also occur if the distance between the phytolamp and the flower is not observed.
  3. Incorrect temperature conditions - if you place an orchid on an unheated balcony in cold weather, it will be supercooled. Then dark spots appear on the leaves, their edges crack.
  4. Incorrect dosage of fertilizers - from an excess of feeding substances, the roots cease to grow, the leaves become sluggish, no peduncles are formed. When the color of the leaves brightens, the plant lacks nitrogen.
  5. Non-optimal humidity - at low indicators, leaves lose turgor, droop, buds, flowers dry out.

These problems can be prevented if you keep the culture in an environment with an appropriate microclimate.

Decorative colors

In addition to indoor varieties of culture, there are also street ones. They rarely plant them. They are found even in Moscow parks, but these species look more modest than their tropical relatives. In most cases, these are orchids called “Slipper”.

To preserve the vivid beauty of flowers, it is necessary to dry the fallen or slightly wilted inflorescences. Artificial plants of different colors are used in interior decoration. The branches look especially beautiful in an outdoor vase. The beige color of the flowers is perfect for complementing the interior of rehabilitation centers, holiday homes, as this shade represents tranquility and tranquility.

The flowers of the culture are so sophisticated that even confectioners use their appearance to decorate cakes and cupcakes. To do this, there are special silicone liners, with the help of which they create artificial flower petals. Cosmetic fragrance is also made, which has an orchid aroma. The substance is used to make soap.

Conclusion

The orchid is also called the queen of flowers. Her multi-colored petals will delight the eye of the most whimsical aesthetes, decorate every botanical garden or house. According to the description, the culture is moody. But observing the rules of care, it is not difficult to achieve the desired result.

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