Features of feeding grape bushes
Plants on the land tend to deplete the soil on which they grow. In order to get a good crop, it is necessary to add useful substances to the soil in order to replenish their supply. Top dressing grapes before and after flowering plays an important role.
Features of feeding grape bushes
Why feed grapes
Adding a sufficient amount of fertilizer to the soil when planting the vine ensures its active growth in the first 3-4 years. Young plants especially need regular recharge. Exceeding the required amount of nutrients negatively affects the general condition of the plant: the bush accumulates trace elements in branches and shoots to grow a dense crown, and postpones the fruiting period until more “hungry” times.
The lack of minerals makes the plant weaken, increases its susceptibility to diseases and infections, destroys the natural protective barrier from pests.
Features of feeding an adult fruiting bush depend on the environmental conditions where it grows, climatic conditions, soil composition, grape varieties. In this case, the vine requires regular and timely replenishment, closely related to the vegetative periods of plant life, season and age.
Grapes should be fertilized during periods of active growth and development of bushes.
The first stage (beginning of May – mid-May) is carried out 7-10 days before flowering. During this period, the vine expends a lot of energy and strength to form inflorescences, using all the reserves of minerals. To do this, use various mineral organic fertilizers.
There are several recipes that use combinations:
- 8 g of potassium magnesia and 15 g of ammonium nitrate per bucket of water;
- 2 kg of rotted manure per 10 l of water;
- 50 g of nitrophosphate and 0.4 g of boric acid in a bucket of water.
All these solutions are designed for 1 square. m square. Before pouring the bush with fertilizer, the soil is loosened to a depth of at least 25 cm and the root system is protected with a roller from the ground so that the solution does not spread.
The second stage (mid-end of July) takes place 10-16 days after flowering. The same fertilizers are introduced into the soil as in the first stage. They help the formation of fruit mass, improve the condition of leaves and shoots. After a week, watering is repeated.
The third stage begins 14 days before fruit ripening. At this time, create the conditions for increasing the size of the fruit and increase the level of sugar in them. For this, nitrogen components are removed from use. Complex irrigation is carried out with fertilizers of 20 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium salts per bucket of water, 1 kg of manure per 10 liters of water per 1 sq. Km. m
The fourth stage occurs at the time of ripening of berries to strengthen the bush. To do this, the root system is fertilized with 2 diluted micronutrient tablets in a bucket of water.
The fifth stage - the last - is carried out after harvesting to support resistance to diseases and infections, as well as preparing for the wintering of the vine. The composition of the fertilizer includes 1 tbsp. l Kalimagnesia, diluted in 10 liters of water.
Fertilizer Helps Increase Productivity
Minerals and trace elements are used in combination to provide good yield and comprehensive support of the plant in the period before and after flowering. By combining the components, a universal fertilizer is obtained. The useful substances that grapes need include the following:
- The copper used in the Bordeaux mixture increases the activity of the plant during growth, and also helps to build up strength for resistance to frost and drought.
- Phosphorus is necessary at the beginning of flowering, because it helps to form inflorescences, ovaries. Superphosphate accelerates the metabolic process in the branches, therefore it is useful during the ripening period of bunches.
- Zinc increases productivity due to the ability to timely and efficiently control fertilization processes.
- Nitrogen is present in substances such as urea or urea, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate. It positively affects the development and growth of green mass of leaves and shoots. This fertilizer is applied in early spring, before the period of active vegetation, in the summer it is contraindicated to carry out such an action.
- Boron - boric acid - an element that is responsible for the accumulation of sugar in fruits and accelerate ripening of berries. It is capable of transporting sugar compounds and carbohydrates. It is characterized by a positive effect on pollen formation, and is often used for fruit formation.
- Potassium is represented by a substance such as potassium chloride, as well as ash, in which phosphorus compounds are present. This element accelerates the ripening of fruits, concentrates the necessary forces for the survival of the vines during periods of sharp temperature changes: in severe frosts or drought. Potassium regulates the quality of intracellular juice, reduces moisture loss, which helps the plant to receive all the necessary elements and substances.
Foliar top dressing
This type of top dressing is used in the case when the application of feeding under the root of the plant does not give the expected results. Foliar top dressing is carried out by spraying leaves, shoots and bunches. In order to get a positive result, it is determined which substances are lacking in the grape, what time of day to carry out the action, during what period of the growing season it is worth doing something.
First foliar top dressing
The first foliar top dressing is carried out 7 days before the flowering of grapes. It helps to reduce shedding of flowers and increase the number of ovaries.
Foliar top dressing is combined with spraying bushes with fungicides. The green mass is fertilized on cloudy days in the morning or in the evening, so that the compounds that fall on the leaves are not burned under the influence of sunlight. For this feeding use a mixture of:
- 0.2% ammonium sulfate;
- 0.6% potassium sulfate;
- 0.5% urea;
- 0.05% manganese;
- 0.03% zinc;
- 10 l of water;
- 30 g of glycerin or vegetable oil.
Second foliar top dressing
The second spraying of the bush is used, if the plant needs it, to improve fruiting and the formation of bunches, strengthen shoots. The same components are used for it as with the first feeding.
Sometimes the second top dressing is limited, sometimes there are several. In the second half of summer, it is better to refrain from this action, because the accelerated growth of young shoots during this period weakens the grapes before wintering, as a result of the branch the first frost will destroy.
Root dressing is carried out after the flowering of the vine.
Fertilizing grapes before flowering is carried out according to the same scheme. In preparation, they dig holes up to 40 cm deep or in the form of a continuous trench at a distance of half a meter from the stem of the bush. Sometimes pipes are buried in such recesses to ensure that substances enter the root system. Fertilizer solution is poured into the pits or through pipes, followed by a large amount of water, thus combining top dressing and watering. Such a system allows the roots to quickly and efficiently absorb the necessary micro and macro elements, distribute them among the branches.
To prepare the mixture for root dressing, the following components are used:
- chemical fertilizers: superphosphate, fungicide, ammonium nitrate, boric acid, phosphoric, ammonia, potassium fertilizers;
- organic matter: chicken droppings, manure, ash, compost.
Fertilizing grape bushes in the period before and after flowering gives a positive result when the process takes into account all the conditions of plant growth, as well as its variety and needs.
Using an integrated approach, when foliar and root top dressing is combined, gives the best possible result, which allows you to get a rich harvest and provide the vine with a comfortable existence at any time of the year.