Features of fattening turkeys for meat
Fattening turkeys for meat takes one of the important stages in breeding and raising poultry on a private farm, because it directly depends on this process whether the bird has time to gain the maximum possible weight by the time of slaughter and has gained excellent nutritional value of dietary meat.
Features of fattening turkeys for meat
Adult Bird Feeding Approaches
It is possible to grow a bird for slaughter at home at different ages. Young growth of young animals is fattened until the moment when the poultry maintenance becomes financially unprofitable for the farm and a decision is made where to put it. Private households use turkey fattening for meat at home in one of three types - meat, greasy or combined. If old discarded individuals go for greasy fattening of turkeys, then healthy turkey is suitable for meat and combined type of fattening. Usually surplus of males and young growth fall under the slaughter. Which is not subject to breeding.
A review of turkey breeds that are more attractive for fattening meat showed that North Caucasian bronze, white and bronze broad-breasted turkeys, Big-6 broilers are well established.
The most suitable for fattening an adult livestock is the period from the end of summer (August) to mid-autumn (October). In this case, the entire growing process is divided into two main periods:
- The first involves free-range poultry. With this content, feeding turkeys should be at least three to four times a day. Wet mixers and grain feed mixes are used in the diet. In the absence of the possibility of free-walking the birds, their daily feeding frequency is increased by one more.
- The second period is the time before the immediate slaughter of the bird. During this time, turkeys are kept indoors only and are not allowed to go outside. In the diet of poultry in the second period of fattening, meat is dominated by feed with a higher proportion of protein components and animal feed. Dilute a nutritious diet with wet flour sacks. The amount of daily feed consumed by a turkey should be at least 0.8 kilograms.
The fattening period of adult turkeys for meat is at least 20 days - one month.
Poultry for meat is grown much more often and they are taken for fattening for meat, usually during spring, so that during the summer period they can grow and gain the necessary weight. However, the cultivation is fundamentally different from the approach that is used in the feeding of adult birds. Poultry fattening usually begins when they reach the age of four months and resort to an intensive forced method, which suggests that:
- the entire period of feeding of young animals, the bird is kept exclusively within the premises or in cages, preventing the possibility of active movement,
- the temperature in the room does not fall below 35-37 degrees, and humidity indicators are maintained at 75 percent,
- in the early days, the room will be provided with round-the-clock lighting, giving conditions for the visibility of feeders and drinking bowls for birds,
- up to the age of eight weeks, the landing rate is up to 10 individuals per square meter, for the next eight weeks their number is reduced to five, and in the future you can leave three.
They are forced to feed turkey poultry twice a day - they feed pellets made from bread and various dumplings made from milk and corn flour (it should be one fifth), oat flour (at least 15 percent), bran from wheat and barley flour (quarterly), industrial yeast (about 2-3 percent) and salt (1 percent). How to do this complementary foods at home, you can watch the video.
Such forced feeding in combination with the main feed makes it possible to feed the birds with an increase in the daily volume of the feed ration by approximately 15–25 percent and an average daily weight gain of up to 100 grams.
Turkey is fed on meat for 15-25 days.
The composition and volume of the diet for young and adult birds
Wet mixers consist mainly of flour mixtures and fresh chopped greens. Dairy products containing protein and cottage cheese, egg residues are added there. Any grain can be used for feeding turkeys with free grazing.
The daily diet of young livestock should be based on the following indicators for 6 - 7 or more kilograms of bird weight, respectively:
- corn, barley, oat crops - 250 - 300 - 350 grams,
- cereal crop - 70 - 70 - 80 grams,
- vegetables (carrots, pumpkin, beets, turnips) - 50 - 50 - 60 grams,
- boiled potatoes - 100 - 100 - 100 grams,
- millet bran - 40 - 50 - 50 grams,
- food waste - 100 - 100 - 100 grams,
- flour - 10 - 10 - 15 grams,
- shell rock - 10 - 10 - 10 grams,
- salt - 2 - 3 - 3 grams.
Sand and gravel are freely available to the bird. About half a day before the slaughter time, the turkey is no longer fully fed and transferred only for drinking.
Composition and volumes of feed for turkey poultry
Standards for fattening turkey poults should daily provide them in a percentage ratio:
- crude proteins - 22-23 percent,
- exchange energy - 13.0 MJ per kilogram,
- crude fiber - up to 3 percent,
- crude ash - up to 7 percent,
- calcium - 0.9 percent,
- phosphorus - 0.7 percent,
- sodium - 0.12 percent,
- methionine - 0.45 percent,
- lysine - 1.1 percent.
Such a mineral complex can be provided if we follow approximately the diet of poultry, which is the decree in the table:
|Feed turkey, in days||1-5||6-10||11-20||21-30||31-40||41-50||51-60||61-90|
In the first five days of age, turkey poults additionally include an egg in an amount of up to 3 grams per day and cottage cheese of 2 grams per day. Starting from six days of age until they reach three weeks, the turkey poultry daily intake is increased to 10 grams, and the egg is excluded from the diet.
Initially, during the first ten days, feeding is carried out with an interval of at least two hours.
For the first two weeks, a self-cooked mash of grated eggs with the addition of flour from corn or wheat, with chopped green onions and chopped carrots along with millet porridge is suitable as a feed mixture. Such food in the first three to five days is given on paper sheets, and then the poultry is transferred to self-feeding from small containers. How to cook it in a private household can be found on the video.
Starting from ten days of age, turkeys are introduced fresh nettle and clover, dandelion and alfalfa in unlimited quantities.
After a two-week period, turkey feed should consist of crushed grains (about 60 percent of the feed volume), legumes (about 25 percent), sunflower (up to 2 percent) and chalk (up to 5 percent).
The transition to six meals a day occurs at the age of 1 month, four meals a day when the age of 2 months is reached.
Four to five months after this fattening, the young turkey is ready for slaughter.