Features of the Column-shaped Apple Tree President
The apple-tree column-shaped President is an excellent solution for compact placement of trees. The variety was bred on the territory of the Soviet Union in 1976. It was obtained by crossing varieties of Leader and Plentiful. This apple tree quickly gained popularity.
Features of the Column-shaped Apple Tree President
During breeding, different types of trees were developed depending on the growth characteristics:
- super dwarfs and half dwarfs. The height of their trunk does not exceed 1.5 m in the first and 2 m in the second. These include the variety of Mazunin;
- medium and strong - these varieties can reach a height of more than 4 m. These are large and strong trees that are difficult to grow on their own;
- Dwarf trees are allocated in a separate group. They are specific in that they are grafted into large varieties for more intensive fruiting. As a result, such a symbiosis can grow into a beautiful tree, 2 or 3 m in height.
Variety President refers to semi-dwarf trees. The average height they can reach is 2.5 m. The trunk and small lateral branches are densely covered with foliage. The tree has a very compact appearance in adulthood - its crown has a diameter of not more than 30 cm.
The growth of a tree at the peak of its development, at 5 years old, is 10 cm. At the beginning of life, a tree can add 5-7 cm in growth annually. After 5 years, the tree grows about 8 cm annually.
A characteristic feature of such an apple tree is the presence of growths. They are called gloves and spears. They provide the tree with stability, as the trunk is not particularly thick, therefore, during the selection, the tree acquired special supporting elements.
This helps the apple trees maintain their upright position during fruiting. These elements provide the tree with reproduction - fruits grow on them. The lifespan of these elements is from 13 to 15 years, depending on the care and weather conditions.
The trunk is elongated. The tree has no lateral branches, therefore, it resembles a column in shape. The wood of the apple tree is very dense; craftsmen make small crafts out of it. Its fruits are of high quality, not amenable to decay.
Fruits are arranged on the trunk in a circle. Their distribution is uniform. Apples begin to grow at a distance of 0.5 m from the ground. The stalks are dense. There are many leaves, the crown is thick.
The fruits are medium sized. The fruit mass reaches up to 250 g in years with good weather conditions, but even in lean periods the apple size of the President will not be less than 100 g. The shape of the fruit is closer to round.
The color is light green or yellow, on one side the fruits have a pronounced blush of pale pink. Sometimes it can have a purple hue. The peel of the fetus is dense and elastic. The skin is matte; it can overflow in the sun.
The fruit tastes sour, with a sweet note. The aroma of the fruit is pleasant, pronounced. The flesh is crisp, dense, white. The fruits have a lot of juice.
Annual Growth and Yield
One of the characteristics of the variety is the rapid onset of fruit growth. Flowering can be observed in the summer, immediately after spring planting it in the open ground. After the tree reaches the age of 5 years, from it you can collect from 7 kg of fruits.
If you properly care for the young apple tree, provide it with all the substances necessary for growth and reproduction, you can achieve 15 kg of fruit from one tree.
They bear fruit annually, even if the weather conditions are unfavorable. Pollinators are bees, but even in their absence, the fruits are able to develop. It is better to plant different trees on the plot.
Fruiting begins in late summer and continues until early October. If you take care of the fruits after harvesting, you can achieve 2-month storage of apples.
Due to the fact that the fruits are tasty, they can be consumed both fresh and processed. President apples can be harvested in the form of jam or jam, they are great for stewed fruit.
These apple trees have good winter hardiness, they are not afraid of snow and cold. The culture is resistant to pests and diseases. This happened as a result of a long selection. After it, apple trees have advantages over the original varieties, which are maternal.
Advantages and disadvantages
Very unpretentious trees
Apple trees President have such advantages:
- in the garden they take up very little space, the column-shaped culture looks neat, with its help you can create stunning compositions in the garden;
- apples quickly begin to appear on trees - the crop can be obtained the very next year after planting;
- tree care is easy even for beginners - they will not require pruning;
- culture is not afraid of the cold.
In addition to advantages, the tree has inherent disadvantages. One of them is a small number of apples in comparison with ordinary varieties. Due to their small size and proximity to the ground, colon-shaped apple trees can lose part of the crop. This happens if you water the tree too much during the cold season.
The wood of such trees attracts rodents. They can seriously damage the apple tree, so it must be protected from their influence. This can be done if you set traps around the landing or network for pests.
If you decide to grow columnar varieties, you need to keep in mind that they need pollinators. This process necessary for the tree will occur if representatives of other varieties of apple and pear trees are next to it. Ideal options would be the apple trees Medoc, Triumph, Currency. From pears - Varieties Tenderness, Decor.
Without pollination, the apple tree will produce much less crop. Next to this variety you need to grow about 10 other trees.
The main requirements that must be followed during landing are:
- a sufficient amount of light - you need to make sure that other trees do not cast a shadow on the young seedling;
- dry soil - it is necessary to provide controlled humidity;
- calm place without wind - these trees are sensitive to drafts.
Landing, according to the description, can be made 2 times a year - in the fall, when the movement of juice stops, and in the spring, when it has not yet begun. There is no fundamental difference in landing time, but most often they use the autumn version.
This is due to the fact that the seedling in this case has more time to adapt. The root system of a young tree needs time to prepare for a period of active growth.
In autumn, the soil is wetter and richer in nutrients than in spring. This helps the roots to harden faster in the ground to withstand bad weather conditions.
To plant the President apple tree in the fall, you need to prepare in the spring. To do this, dig a hole measuring 0.5 m in width and depth. This is done so that oxygen circulates in the soil. Due to this, the roots take root better in the soil.
In autumn, it is necessary to correctly predict the moment of disembarkation. This must be done no later than a month after the first frost. If you do not follow this rule, the fragile roots of the young tree will simply freeze and the tree will die.
Those trees that were planted before winter have higher resistance to cold. Such crops in spring become stronger because they are fed by snow. Trees planted in spring are more likely to die because soil and air are too dry.
When planting in the fall, you should take care to warm the tree. This is achieved by mulching with the help of spruce or sawdust.
Landing technology does not differ from the standard. When planting, do not forget that you need to maintain the distance between the trees. The distance should be approximately 0.5 m. This is less than for ordinary apple trees, which is associated with their small crown.
After the pit is prepared, it is necessary to perform the following manipulations:
- fertilizer is placed at the bottom of the pit: it is better to take natural - the trees tolerate it well;
- after this, you need to take the seedling and carefully lower it into the pit;
- fill the gaps with earth and tamp the soil a little;
- if the area is windy, you need to provide support for the apple tree by tying it to it;
- after planting, the tree needs to be watered well.
Fertilizers needed for a better crop
Trees need to be fed. They need to ensure this during the period of active growth. In spring and summer, you need to feed them, in the fall to get large and tasty fruits. Urea solution is suitable for President apple trees.
The ratio for irrigation is to take at least 10 liters of liquid per 40 g of fertilizer. If the tree is only one, then for it you will need 2 liters of the finished product.
The first fertilizer must be applied when all the leaves on the tree are blooming. To make a second feeding, you need to count 3 weeks from the first. After the same period of time, you need to make the 3rd fertilizer.
When compared with other fruit trees, this variety needs to be watered much more often. Care must be taken to keep the soil moist. The best way to make sure that the tree does not need moisture is to drip water.
If this is not possible, pour 1 bucket of water every 3 days under each tree. You can not irrigate the tree if the weather is rainy. If the variety grows in the country and you can come there only once a week, take care of a thick layer of mulch - this will save the situation.
Trimming in this case is optional. At the first time of growth, it may be necessary to carry out reorganization - to remove damaged branches and leaves. There is no need to trim the crown by cropping.
A tree can damage a black cancer disease. To prevent its development, it is necessary to carry out prophylaxis - treat it with Bordeaux liquid.
A crop may not bear fruit due to rot. In order to prevent the development of this disease, the apple tree must be treated with Nitrafen.
Ripening and fruiting
The most fertile period in the life of a tree is the time after 5 years and up to 10. Fruits begin to appear in the next season after planting, but there will be few more. In the first year, blooming flowers are removed, because a small tree will not be able to support the fruits.
Harvested from late summer to mid-October. Fruits are stored in a cool place with a temperature not exceeding 5 ° C and not less than -2 ° C. If you adhere to this regimen, the fruits may lie until winter.
Growing in different regions
The cultivation of the variety is popular in cool regions due to the fact that it is distinguished by increased winter hardiness. The tree feels most comfortable in a temperate climate.
In extreme conditions, for example, in the regions of Siberia, it is difficult to get a big harvest - in the summer the tree does not have enough heat to form fruits.
Gardeners prefer this variety to others, because these trees are very compact. They can be planted in large quantities on one site and have a rich harvest.
The President should not have any difficulties planting and watering the apple tree - this tree can be unpretentious in maintenance, especially if it grows in a comfortable climate.