Edible Mushrooms in Murmansk
The nature of the Kola Peninsula is distinctive and unique - this is recognized by everyone who has been there. More often, mushrooms in Murmansk do not grow in forests, but in the tundra or in rocky steppes.
Edible Mushrooms in Murmansk
Mushrooms do not belong to either the plant or animal world - they form their own, separate kingdom, which, according to various estimates, currently includes more than 100, 000 species. They contain a huge amount of vitamins, minerals and minerals:
- vitamins A, F, B, D and PP;
Their protein content reaches 5%. This is more than in chicken and eggs.
Enzymes in mushrooms allow the use of these products in various areas of human life:
- in clarification of juices;
- in the processing of paper waste;
- for enrichment of roughage;
- in the manufacture of soy sauces.
They do not have chlorophyll and green plastids that contain it - chloroplasts. The process of photosynthesis in connection with these fungi is not available. These are heterotrophic organisms and they participate in the circulation of substances and energy in the biosphere, as its integral part. They lead a parasitic, saprophytic or symbiotic lifestyle. Only a few (few) species of mushrooms live in the water, the rest prefer to breed on land.
The high content of water in them improves the digestibility of fungi when ingested.
Types of mushrooms in the region
On the Kola Peninsula in the Murmansk region there are different types of mushrooms that are characteristic of central Russia. The most popular are:
- mushrooms (white);
- aspen mushrooms (redheads);
- boletus (obabek);
White (boletus) infrequent guests in these places, because they prefer to grow in the shade of trees. But still they are found closer to the mouth of the Voronya River. They are well suited for both drying and frying.
Folk mushrooms are popularly called red-headed because of the bright and beautiful color of the hats. They have taken root well on the rocky soil of the peninsula and are found throughout its territory. The climate of the peninsula changes the appearance of this mushroom. Over time, its surface becomes like a tortoise shell. In the sun and wind, the hat is covered with small cracks. Pests rarely infect this species of fungi. It is well suited for drying or freezing. Boletus rarely grow alone, more often found in small groups.
Boletus in the Murmansk region have a slippery hat, which makes them not attractive. They are not considered valuable in mushroom pickers who prefer to collect it for pickling.
Flywheels love to eat worms and midges, so you should carefully look at the collected specimens and discard damaged ones on the spot. It is better to cook soups for their mushrooms, they give the dish a unique flavor.
Mushrooms are rare in forests.
The mushroom pickers do not bear fruit every year. On the peninsula, this mushroom is quite rare.
Wet soil near streams or rivers contributes to the good reproduction of pink waves. And away from moisture, on rocky ledges, mountain whitewash is collected - another type of flies known to us.
Bitters and smoothies grow to the coldest places near the highway or paths. They are good for pickling or salt.
The most common are russula. Every year, local residents collect large crops and use them for conservation.
To collect more mushrooms, boletus and thistles, it is better to go towards Oktyabrsky, having crossed the bridge over the Umbra river.
Lamellar and white species grow on Tulok. Get there by boat.
Along the highway along Leningradka every year there are many boletus.
On the slides beyond Ecostrovsky, next to the highway, you can get a good harvest of russula.
The road to Koashva is full of brown boletus and boletus. There is also a pine and many bushes with berries, which can make a good diversification of your family’s winter menu.
Closer to the village of Dalnye Zelentsy there are all kinds of breasts: yellow, black and white.
On the territory of the region there are also unsuitable food species, which include, for example:
- Amanita muscaria;
- death cap;
- false chanterelle;
- false honey mushrooms.
Amanita and toadstools cause severe poisoning, which can lead to death.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
We are used to thinking that poisonous or simply dangerous mushrooms can be distinguished by their smell from the edible representatives of the mushroom kingdom. But the fly agaric is an extremely rare exception among all known poisonous species - it has a pleasant aroma and quite attractive taste. And if you also take into account that during the rains white flakes can easily be washed off his hat, making him recognizable, then there is a problem for inexperienced mushroom pickers and children, whom parents often take to the forest for a walk. Therefore, it is worthwhile to conduct a preventive conversation with children about the fact that in the forest you can’t take anything that smells really nice. And the beginning "quiet hunters" need to adopt not only an atlas with photos of mushrooms, but also the rule: "I’m not sure about the edibility of the mushroom - go by, don’t recognize the mushroom - go by."
If mushroom poisoning has occurred, you should immediately consult a doctor. It is important that the victim himself does not move much. First of all, he needs to empty his stomach by inducing vomiting. After that, you need to put the person on the bed. To avoid dehydration, give (one option):
- drink cold salted water (1 tsp per glass of water);
- strong tea;
- milk with honey.
Attention! Drinking alcohol is strictly forbidden: alcohol, on the contrary, will help toxins quickly spread throughout the body. The remains of the mushrooms that caused the poisoning must be preserved for research.
Protected mushrooms of the Murmansk region
On the territory of the region there are species listed in the regional Red Book, editions of 2003:
- coral-shaped hedgehog;
- purple varnish;
- real fox;
- cobweb purple;
- aspen white;
- clavariadelfus (hornet) pesticum;
- clavariadelphus (horned) truncated;
These are rare, endangered species, for the collection or destruction of which in their natural habitats, faces a large fine.
In 2014, the second edition of the Red Book of the Murmansk Region was published. It already included 18 species of mushrooms: 1 species - White aspen - excluded. 12 of them are new:
- clavichoron yew;
- dichomitus is dirty;
- brown elmerina;
- flaviporus lemon yellow;
- yunghuniya crushing;
- leptoporus is soft;
- elongated microstoma;
- winter fasting;
- fasting peach red;
- spherical sarcosome;
- sidera is tender;
- Skeleton cutis lilac.
But in the additional list in the appendix to the Red Book there are 5 more species of mushrooms that need protection.
The remaining 6 species included in the first edition of the Red Book were included in the second edition.
Benefit and harm
Forest mushrooms have a number of positive properties. They are nutritious and at the same time low-calorie due to the high water content. Therefore, they are useful in dietary nutrition. The presence of vitamins in them strengthens the immune system and increases resistance to viruses.
Some types of mushrooms are used for medical and pharmacological purposes to create new drugs. A number of mushrooms have been used for a long time and successfully in alternative - traditional medicine. However, one should not forget that the beginning of the use of any medicine, especially obtained independently on the basis of natural raw materials, it is necessary to consult with your doctor. These agents may not be essential in the treatment of diseases. They are an adjunctive therapy.
To increase the productivity of plants, a substance obtained from Fusarium is used in the national economy.
But mushrooms also do harm. Their bodies work like natural sponges and absorb various toxins released in the process of industrial and agricultural production from the environment. In some cases, radioactive isotopes also enter the environment. Therefore, forest organisms should not be collected near settlements, industrial zones, agricultural concerns, landfills and roads.
Mushroom spores can penetrate the most inaccessible places and destroy wood, sleepers, reduce productivity. In damp rooms, mushrooms spoil the surface of the walls, affect products.
The mushroom world affects the human mind with its diversity and uniqueness of qualities. It has not yet been studied by science to the end. Even in the harsh climate of the Murmansk region, some types of mushrooms feel good.