Edible and poisonous agaric mushrooms
Each experienced mushroom picker knows that there are two large groups of mushrooms that are clearly separated by external signs, in particular in appearance and, accordingly, in the structure of the hymenophore. Leaf mushrooms are represented by an extensive number of species. They take the second place in taste, but at the same time they are very popular among lovers of "forest meat".
Edible and poisonous agaric mushrooms
Lobar Mushroom Features
Unlike spongy, lamellar hats have spore-bearing hymenophores in the form of radial plates that diverge from the legs to the edges of the hat. The shape of the upper part of the fruiting body may be different, depending on the species. Sometimes hats are similar to concave cones, change during the growth of the fungus, or fit snugly on the leg. Some specimens have a thin film covering the young fruiting body during its growth. Over time, it breaks and forms a specific sac at the base of the leg - Volvo. In addition to this common shell, there is also a private shell - it covers with itself a young spore-bearing layer until the spores mature. Then it breaks and a belt forms under the hat.
The fruiting body of these representatives of the mushroom kingdom is fragile and easily breaks. The leg can be hollow or dense, but much thinner than spongy congeners. When cut from the fruit body, milky juice is often released, in the absence of it, the species is called breadcrumbs - they dry out in the sun, and do not rot.
The color scheme is widely represented: it includes light, purple, brown, yellow and red tones.
Many delicious agaric mushrooms have poisonous counterparts that differ only in hue or smell. Often edible species have a pleasant forest aroma.
All lamellar species are found in woodlands, in fields, parks and gardens, where sandy and sandy loamy soil prevails with a high level of moisture and the presence of dead wood and deciduous compost. Some of them are parasitic because of their ability to destroy living wood.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
You already know that you can determine whether a mushroom belongs to a certain group by simply looking at it under a hat. At lamellar there are special formations - thin plates on the surface of which spores mature. The color, shape and location of the plates are diverse and depend on the type of fungus.
All lamellar mushrooms belong to the higher fungi in the class Basidiomycetes, Agaric order (Lamellar). Most of them are characterized by the presence of annual fruiting bodies, both fleshy and leathery.
This group of mushrooms is lamellar, the most famous and popular among fans of "silent hunting", but unfortunately they do not belong to the status of "noble" because of the large number of inedible representatives characteristic of them.
The collection of the first agaric mushrooms begins in March, and ends in late autumn. Several species and their breeding options are grown in industrial and domestic conditions.
They have an unstable consistency and often fall apart in the process of prolonged exposure to high temperatures.
The palatability of edible agaric mushrooms is highly regarded by mushroom pickers, although spongy specimens are considered more delicate. They are used for pickling, frying, drying, but rarely for boiling. In terms of cooking, unfortunately, only honey mushrooms are suitable for making soups.
Mushrooms are valued for their taste
Tasty fruiting bodies are distinguished by their appearance and place of growth. Data on them are listed in the table.
|Name of edible mushroom||External description of the fruit body of the agaric||Description and characteristics of pulp||Places of growth|
|Chanterelles ordinary||Concave hat with uneven edges, fused with a leg. The whole mushroom is orange-yellow. The hymenophore is represented by thick pseudoplastic plates.||Yellow color in dense flesh with a sour taste, the smell of dried mushrooms prevails.||Deciduous and coniferous, mixed forests.|
|Ginger||Easily concave hat with the edges bent inward, tightly fused with the leg. Color varies from gray-orange to brown-orange, on the upper part there are rings.||A nice orange color in the cut, but quickly turns green when crushed. It has a barely noticeable fruity aroma and aftertaste.||Coniferous pine forests, borderland with mixed forests.|
|Openings are summer, autumn||The convex cap on the thick leg, which in adulthood becomes flatter. A belt under the hat is available (the rest of the private bedspread). The upper part (hat) has color variations from whitish-cream with scales to brown. Leg light, also scaly, darkening closer to the ground.||Soft, light brown, has a strong and pleasant forest aroma and taste. Does not boil when cooking.||Deciduous forests, stumps and rotten wood, partial shade gardens.|
|Russula||Spherical, hemispherical, funnel-like, horizontal hat on a thick leg. the color of the lower part (gimenofor) of the fungus is white, the top layer of the cap is brown, reddish, brown.||White and crispy, very fragile. Has a pleasant forest smell, delicate taste.||Deciduous, coniferous-deciduous forests, young planting, marshy area.|
|Champignon||Spherical and hemispherical hats of light and dark brown shades, thick legs of the same light color, belted (there is a ring). The plates are light, in adulthood darken to brown.||The pulp is dense, white, darkens somewhat during heat treatment. Has a nice powdery smell and taste. It is used even raw in salads.||Mixed burs, young deciduous plantings, fields and meadows, gardens.|
|Pink thrush||A slightly concave hat with a recess in the center, has a pink or yellowish color, concentric circles along the entire upper part, an easy edge of the skin. The leg is dense and strong, pink.||White and dense, characterized by a specific island flavor.||Birch, oaks, alder, pine, young spruce, found in marshy areas.|
|White breast||The mushroom cap has a light yellow or cream shade, characterized by a concave shape with curved edges. The leg is thick, hollow, gives off a pungent white milky juice.||A yellowish strong pulp with a strong fruity taste and smell.||Birch groves, oak forests, mixed forests, coniferous young trees. Prefers sunny places.|
Inedible and poisonous agaric mushrooms
Pale toadstool can kill a person
Lamellar mushrooms unsuitable for gastronomic use comprise more than 30 species.
Many lamellar are small in size, differ in structural features in the form of small hats and thin long legs, feed on rotting remains of the plant and animal world. Others have a specific appearance, which does not allow them to be confused with edible mushrooms.
Examples of poisonous and undesirable mushrooms for use in cooking:
- Pale toadstool: can lead to death of a person 7-8 hours after eating. The height of the adult fruiting body is up to 15 cm, the diameter of the cap is 5-12 cm. The upper part is shiny, greenish-white or yellowish-olive, with white plates. Leg light, with the remnants of a film in the form of a torn girdle and with a film bag (Volvo) at the surface of the earth. Old specimens produce an unpleasant putrefactive odor.
- Amanita muscaria: famous for its bright scarlet hats with white flakes in the form of flakes. The shape of the upper part is first semicircular, then unfolds into a flat one. The leg is white, thick, high, with a large girdle and the remainder of the bag (common bedspread) at its lower part. Young specimens smell good. Amanita muscaria grows in sunny places in mixed and coniferous forests.
- The fibrous fiber is fibrous: representatives of the species can be found in deciduous and coniferous forests; it is slightly inferior in terms of toxicity to the pale grebe. Her hat has the shape of a bell; with age, it straightens and crackes a little. The color of the upper part varies from straw yellow to olive-brown, legs - from brown to brown with a powdery coating.
- False mushrooms: they differ from their edible relatives in a more saturated color scheme. Their convex cap has a gray-yellow hue with a transition to red in the center. The cylindrical leg is spared from the girdle, also yellowish with a transition to reddish-gray colors. The flesh of the false again is gray-yellow, bitter in taste, has an unpleasant odor.
- Galerina edged: also called false champignon. Its fragile fruit body is visible in the sun, has a brownish-yellowish or light brown color. The hat is convex, in adult specimens it straightens (flattenes), but a tubercle remains in the center. A light rim bent against the growth of the plates is clearly visible along the outer contour. The leg is thin, high, ocher-brown, with powdery powder.
- Entoloma spring: can be found in deciduous forests and parks, as well as in gardens. The shape of the hat is bell-shaped or cone-shaped, brown-gray, sticky and smooth. Leg of medium height, smooth, gray or light brown. The pulp is dense, has a smell of dampness, tastes bitter.
Acquaintance with lamellar mushrooms to an inexperienced mushroom picker should begin only with a knowledgeable person or a good manual in order to learn to distinguish edible from poisonous specimens. The distribution of the species of these mushrooms covers large wooded areas, but it is better to collect fruiting bodies away from industrial zones and routes to be sure of their quality. Any leaf mushrooms that absorb dangerous toxins from the environment become fatal to humans.