Diseases and pests of tomato seedlings and their treatment
Tomato seedling diseases are a common problem. Consider what types of diseases can affect the plant and how to deal with ailments.
Diseases of tomato seedlings and their treatment
Types of diseases
Tomato seedlings are exposed to both fungal and viral diseases, and also suffer from insect attacks. Among the most common causes of bush disease are:
- fungal diseases;
- viral diseases;
- pest damage.
- late blight;
These diseases are triggered by different factors, and the methods of treatment are also different.
Late blight is a disease that is transmitted through the seeds of infected crops, soil and airborne droplets.
A careful examination of the sprouts helps to determine what exactly the tomato seedlings are sick with. The onset of late blight is as follows:
- dark brown spots appear on the leaves;
- the back of the sheet plate is covered with a grayish coating;
- spots pass to the stems.
Late blight quickly infects all plantings. If you do not take action, you can lose the crop.
How to avoid a problem
Treatment of disease of tomato sprouts begins with prevention:
- Protection against late blight begins with the treatment of seed material. A pink solution is used to disinfect the seeds. The concentration of manganese in the composition should not exceed 1-2%. In this solution, the seeds are soaked and left for 2-3 hours. Also, hydrogen peroxide is used to disinfect seeds.
- The optimum moisture content for tomato shoots should not exceed 75%. Room with air. Carrying out such events do not allow drafts.
- Plants that have at least 2 true leaves are treated with disinfectant solutions.
- Observe the correct neighborhood of cultures. For tomatoes, the best neighbors are garlic, onions, cabbage, radish, lettuce, and beans.
- When planting tomatoes observe the distance between rows and holes.
As a prophylaxis, special chemicals Oxychom, Metronidazole, Fitosporin, Trichopol, Barrier are used. Vegetable growers recommend using Bordeaux liquid, copper sulfate. All drugs are used strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
Alternative methods of treatment
Of the folk methods of controlling late blight, an effective tool is used - a solution of manganese with garlic. For such an infusion, 200 g of chopped garlic and 1 g of manganese are needed. The mixture is poured into 1 liter of water, insisted for 48 hours. The resulting product is filtered, the volume is adjusted to 10 liters. The solution is ready for processing plants.
Tatyana Orlova (candidate of agricultural sciences):
Late blight is a disease that affects mainly adult plants of tomato and potato, but not seedlings.
The disease can deprive seedlings
Pathogenic fungi that provoke the development of black legs in tomatoes live in the soil, so before planting tomatoes, soil treatment is carried out. To do this, the prepared soil mixture is calcined at a temperature of at least 100 ° C, and then spilled with a solution of manganese.
The causes of the disease of tomato seedlings can be:
- high air temperature;
- waterlogging of the soil.
Withering of seedlings indicates that the culture is sick. This is accompanied by the blackening of the stem just above the root. Sprouts become thin, gradually dry.
Ill seedlings destroy. The places of the removed sprouts are sprinkled with wood ash. The area of the entire bed is covered with calcined river sand. The sand layer should be at least 2 cm.
To combat the black leg, Fitolavin, Bactofit, Fitosporin are used. The use of any drug is carried out strictly in accordance with the instructions.
Tatyana Orlova (candidate of agricultural sciences):
At the first signs of the appearance of a black leg (1-2 "fallen" seedlings), watering is sharply reduced, the surface of the seedling box is sprinkled with powdered charcoal or crushed tablets of activated charcoal.
Tomato viral diseases include:
- white spotting;
- brown spotting:
White spotting of tomatoes, or septoria, begins with damage to the lower leaves of seedlings. With a thorough inspection of the seedlings, you can see white spots of grayish shades and with small black splashes. Later, the sheet plate acquires a brown tint, dries and disappears. The disease rises up the stem and leaves.
To combat white spotting, a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid is used. If the treatment does not help, the affected plants are removed, and the places of their growth are sprinkled with wood ash.
So that the culture does not get sick, preventive measures are carried out, which consists in preliminary processing of the soil. In the fight against Septoria fungi, a good result is shown by freezing the soil in which it is planned to grow tomatoes. It will be useful to treat the soil with a 1% manganese solution, fertilizer with sand and ash.
Sick parts of the plant must be removed
The brown spotting of the tomatoes is manifested by yellow spots with a grayish tint on the front side of the leaves, an olive coating appears on the reverse side. Then the small spots merge into one large one, the leaf plate becomes brown on top, and the plaque on the underside acquires a reddish hue with a splash of brown. The development of the disease leads to the death of tomato seedlings.
If the culture is sick, the infected sprouts are removed, the beds are sprinkled with ash and river sand, the plants are treated with Bordeaux liquid or solutions based on copper-containing preparations.
It is best to start the fight against brown spotting with the prevention of the disease. For this, thorough soil cultivation is carried out using a pink solution.
The disease spreads through the seeds. The strick appears on the leaves, stems of seedlings with red-brown stripes, strokes and specks. A plant that is sick becomes brittle, brittle. The leaves on such a culture gradually die off.
Damaged sprouts are removed from the beds. The beds are treated with a solution of manganese, fertilized with wood ash.
Streak prophylaxis begins with a thorough preparation of the seed material.
- acquire high-quality seeds;
- do not use seeds of diseased cultures;
- maintain the seed in a pink solution for 2-3 hours.
The disease manifests itself as mottled spots on all leaves. Further development of the disease leads to the fact that the leaf plates become wrinkled, curl, gradually acquire a yellow color and die off. The carriers of the disease are pests.
For the treatment of mosaics use a 10% solution of whey. Among the chemicals for the fight against mosaics, Farmayod has proven itself well. It will not be superfluous to treat the plantings of tomatoes with insecticides.
Mosaic spreads rapidly over tomato plantings. Do not neglect the rules of agricultural technology:
- remove weeds;
- follow the scheme of planting tomatoes;
- provide enough light to landings;
- do not allow waterlogging of the soil.
Prevention of the disease consists in the proper preparation of seed material and soil:
- Choose seeds 2-3 years old;
- treat the seeds with a 20% hydrochloric acid solution;
- sterilize the soil;
- disinfect garden equipment.
After the appearance of the first seedlings, plant prophylaxis continues. These measures consist in treating the sprouts with a weakly concentrated solution of boric acid.
The cause of the disease is insects.
Among the diseases that affects tomato seedlings, a special place is occupied by a viral disease - aspermia (infertility). This virus is transmitted by insects or plants that are reserves for these microorganisms. The disease manifests itself in increased curly tops. The stem of the culture does not develop, the leaves twist, become small, acquire an irregular shape, the plant does not bear fruit.
The fight against the virus is primarily in the treatment of plants from a pest such as aphids (the first carrier of the virus). The following chemical fungicidal preparations are used:
All solutions must be prepared strictly in accordance with the instructions for the drug, otherwise there is a risk of harming the plants.
Carrying out preventive measures will reduce the risk of developing diseases. These measures include:
- insecticide treatment;
- maintaining the right neighborhood of cultures;
- disinfection of seed material.
- garden scoop.
Aphids and Whiteflies
Whiteflies, aphids pose a great threat as carriers of diseases.
The use of insecticides and soap solutions on tomato plantings will help get rid of such pests.
Thrips are hidden on the underside of leaves or in buds. As a result, the leaves dry and die.
How to fight
In the fight against them, Aktara and Fitoverm preparations will help.
Caterpillars scoops are attached to young shoots and feed on the juice of sprouts until it dies.
How to fight
The control of such pests is as follows:
- dig land in the fall;
- remove plant residues before planting;
- remove weeds throughout the entire period of development of the crop;
- catch the tracks manually;
- Use sweet traps.
You can use chemicals. In spring, plants are treated with insecticides (Karate, Decis, Zolon). For processing the rest of the time, Aktofit, Agrortin are suitable.
If you know why tomato seedlings are sick, it will be much easier to deal with the problem. To collect a good harvest, they create favorable conditions for the development of culture, monitor all changes in the sprouts, take measures to eliminate the symptoms of diseases.