Description of Russula green and its double
Russula is a genus of russula, which includes more than 60 varieties that differ in color and properties. These mushrooms are not demanding on soil composition and climatic conditions. Russula is green and its double is found in mixed forests. Usually they grow individually or in small families of 3-5 pieces.
Description of Russula green and its double
These fungi form mycorrhiza with the root system of deciduous and coniferous trees, i.e. they are active mycorrhiza forming. Distributed around the world. Knowing the exact description of the appearance of the russula is green, it will be possible to avoid poisoning it with a poisonous double.
The gimenofor has a lamellar structure, painted white. The plates are often located near the legs, but closer to the edge of the cap diverge. Near the legs of the plate can occasionally branch. As they age, the hymenophore acquires a fawn hue. The diameter of the hat is 5-10 cm, which depends on age and living conditions. In young specimens, the shape of the hat is usually semicircular, in older specimens, it is outstretched with a wavy edge and clearly visible scars.
In a young mushroom, the hat is covered with mucus. Drying, it becomes brilliant. The color is greenish or off white. In an old mushroom, the color of the hat becomes green-olive.
Leg height - 4-7 cm, diameter - 2-3 cm. The leg itself is cylindrical in shape, not hollow inside, smooth, white. In old mushrooms and in specimens growing during the period of drought, brown spots appear on the stem. The flesh of white color has a pleasant soft sweet taste. But for the records an island taste is characteristic. When pressed, the inside of the fungus turns brown, exudes a barely perceptible pleasant aroma.
In nature, there is a green scaly variety. Differs from the usual structure of the cap surface. It clearly shows flakes of light green in color. The surface of the hat seems airy.
Poison doubles and false russula
Russula has poisonous counterparts: pale grebe, fly agaric.
The greenish Russula resembles a young pale grebe. A young mushroom has a poorly visible leg. This is the most common reason why a poisonous double gets into the mushroom basket.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
About pale grebe it is necessary to remember that:
- In clinical practice, poisoning by it is classified into mild, moderate and severe.
- Not only the fungus itself is poisonous, but also its spores.
- Mushrooms and berries located nearby (within a radius of about 1.5-2 m) cannot be torn with it - its mycelium can transfer some of the toxins to these forest inhabitants and make them dangerous to health.
- Toadstool toxins are resistant to high temperatures and gastrointestinal enzymes.
Edible mushroom has distinctive features common to the genus Russula:
- lack of a Volvo ring;
- barely perceptible pleasant smell.
It is easier to determine an adult edible specimen: a leg is clearly visible in it, the cap becomes depressed in the central part, which does not appear in a pale grebe. If you dig the soil under the toadstool, you can see that it grows from a kind of formation resembling a sac or an egg (Volvo). The top of the double head is convex, and 2 rings are visible on the leg: bottom and top. A distinctive feature of the toadstool is the pungent, unpleasant smell of pulp.
The scaly variety is confused with the fly agaric. The main difference between them: in russula, the scales tightly grow to the hat, in the fly agaric - they are easily torn off. There are russula in nature, which are not advisable to eat because of their inedibility:
- The russula is caustic, or pungent: the cap is convex, light red. The pulp and leg are white, exude a fruity aroma, and have a pungent, unpleasant taste.
- Russula is sharp-edged, or yellowing: a cherry hat with a purple hue. The pulp is dense, yellow, it smells of fruit. Eating is fraught with gastrointestinal upset.
- The Russula is blood red: the hat has a color and the name that gave the name is bright red. The pulp on the slice is yellow. The species is conditionally edible. When used raw, it causes indigestion.
The mushroom is suitable for diet
In the fruit body of Russula green contains a lot of vitamins and minerals necessary to provide the human body with energy. 20% of the mushroom body is made up of protein. Contains calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron.
The calorie content of the mushroom is 12 kcal per 100 g of pulp. Refers to diet foods. Regular use helps prevent blood clots.
Green russula is contraindicated:
- children under 8 years old;
- pregnant and lactating women;
- People suffering from kidney disease, gastritis.
When consuming russules, the daily norm of 150 g must not be exceeded. Products must undergo thorough heat treatment. In undercooked or raw form, they cause gastrointestinal upset, usually accompanied by vomiting, diarrhea.
Attention! Marinated product, consumed in large quantities, causes an exacerbation of liver disease. Even the edible mushroom collected near the city, near roads and factories, causes severe poisoning, so you need to carefully choose a mushroom place.
Due to its healing qualities and a number of vitamins in the composition, the product has found wide application in cooking and medicine. It is included in the diet during the "drying" of the body and intense training. The high protein content allows you to quickly restore muscle tissue damaged during increased physical exertion, improve metabolism.
The use of this product in an amount of 150 g / day has a positive effect on the state of the nervous system and immunity. Protein components actively restore the tissues of the walls of the vascular network, preventing their blockage (thrombosis), contribute to the elimination of toxins. High iron levels increase hemoglobin in the blood.
An inedible analogue - Russula blood-red - is used as raw material for tinctures. An extract from it contains useful trace elements and substances that allow you to create homeopathic medicines.
Russula is used in fried, pickled, salty form. Before cooking, the product is thoroughly washed from dirt. The hat is peeled, prying the edge with a knife. Lightly core.
A cleaned, prepared fruiting body requires instant processing until the flesh is yellow. It is important to prevent darkening. Mushrooms are boiled for 20 minutes, then drained and poured with a new one, boiled for another 20 minutes with spices, bay leaf and onions. After such preparation, they can be fried, stewed or rolled up in jars.
Raw mushrooms contain the enzyme russulin. It is used in the manufacture of rennet cheeses and cottage cheese.
Russula is widely used in medicine. Traditional healers have long been using it in the treatment of abscesses, abscesses and pyoderma (purulent skin lesions that develop as a result of the penetration of bacteria - pyogenic cocci into the body). In traditional medicine, the extract from the mycelium is used in the manufacture of drugs for cancer patients. Mushroom is actively used in dietetic nutrition in the treatment of thrombosis and cardiovascular pathologies.
Mushroom juice is used in the fight against corns. Russula vodka tincture is effective in treating colds. Also, it is used externally for grinding. The inedible fungus Russula causticis suitable for the production of hemostatic drugs.
Green russula is a useful edible organism that has been widely used not only in cooking, but also in medicine. They are able to replace meat products, which makes them attractive to vegetarians. The high content of the vitamin-mineral complex has a beneficial effect on the condition of the skin, nail plates, and teeth. The most dangerous inedible double is the pale grebe.