Description of Phalaenopsis orchid
Phalaenopsis orchid is a perennial plant, popular due to its flowering duration. It has a bright color of petals and many varieties. It is undemanding in care, so it is a good option for beginner gardeners. But with its reproduction, difficulties often arise.
Description of Phalaenopsis orchid
In the wild, Phalaenopsis orchids live in moist, warm forests. They originated in Asia and comprise about 70 species. According to the description, the structure of orchids consists of tuberidia or pseudobulb, but in Phalaenopsis it is all absent.
This is a monopodial orchid, slowly growing in height. Orchid cultivation produce onions. How many years an orchid lives depends on the amount of vital energy of a flower, but it decreases during stimulation of flowering and development of children. During the breeding period of Phalaenopsis, fertilizers and top dressing should be used.
Phalaenopsis is not inferior in frequency to keeping the house hybrid Dendrobium Nobile.
Description of leaves and tree
Phalaenopsis is an orchid with a special rhythm of development, growth and smell. To determine the age of the plant, count the number of large leaves.
An adult tree has the shape of a rosette with two rows of leaves located.
Home Phalaenopsis orchid has a short stem growing up. A system of aerial roots is well developed. Their thickness is up to 7 mm in diameter. The roots are covered with a layer of special absorbent tissue - velamena. They have a silver-green color.
Phalaenopsis at home reaches 50-70 cm. In a healthy plant, the rosette consists of 4-6 leaves. Up to 2 new leaves appear during the year. They are dense, painted in a deep dark green color. They have an oblong-oval shape. They are arranged alternately, and between them a peduncle grows.
Description of colors
Peduncles, depending on the species, are long (up to 80 cm) and short (about 20 cm). They have a curved or straight shape. Flowers also have different diameters from 2 to 15 cm. They are collected in racemose inflorescences and resemble the shape of a butterfly or star. The growth period varies from 2 months to six months.
The Phalaenopsis orchid has a pleasant and unobtrusive aroma.
Home Phalaenopsis orchid blooms twice a year - in spring and autumn. The flowering period depends on the interaction of the general condition of the plant and the characteristics of the care.
Types of varieties
The phalaenopsis flower is distinguished by the size of the leaves, the length of the peduncle and the color. Variety characteristic:
|Amabilis||Leaves from 30 to 50 cm, green, up to 12 cm in diameter. The petals are white and the flower lip is yellow or peach. Amabilis bloom first in autumn through March.|
|Schiller (Schilleriana)||Flowers are lilac or single color. It blooms in winter.|
|Stuart (Stuartiana)||Peduncles long - 80 cm long. Thoroughbred petals with red spots at the base. Bloom from mid-winter to March.|
|Amsterdam Jordan||Raspberry petals in a dark spot. The lip has a burgundy hue.|
|Horse (Equestris)||Pleasant aroma and large leaves up to 13 cm. The flowers are purple or lilac.|
|Natasha Aiko||Has 3 pairs of leaves and reaches 12 cm of growth. A pink or green hue with spots throughout the flower.|
Variegated Phalaenopsis variegated includes varieties: Philippinensis and Linden. The appearance of Stone Rose, Little Zebra, Sumatra, Ping, Rossini and Sacramento is famous for raspberry shades, and the fine-flowered variety Phoenix, Venus, Violet, Tonka and Pulhra is famous for its rich smell.
The Phalaenopsis orchid has many varieties
Yellow petals: Solid Gold, Nina Quinn, Yara, Mango and Maya with red splashes. The ampelny camelina is colored in orange, as are Surfsong and Novelty.
Varieties with white petals:
- Leopard Prince;
- Phalaenopsis Super Beautyful.
- Tetraspis and Gemeng - white petals with red dots.
Purple color is characteristic for Phantom and Extra, Multi, Martin, Angel, Rider, Cherry and Jewel. In the Mann species, the leaves are green with purple dots.
Variety Mandala has a creamy caramel color of petals with a Leopard lip. Sesame is distinguished by a tiger pink-white pattern on the petals. Interesting flowering in species: Panda, Elegant, Deborah, Aloha, Leo, Ravello, Zion and Tabor.
Facts about orchids say that among its varieties there is a view of the Royal. Plants of blue color, look like the sky. But in the natural environment there is no such color.
A pot with a plant is recommended to be placed on the northwestern part of the apartment or on the east with shading. For this, accommodation on a windowsill or balcony is suitable. Orchid does not like a change of residence, so the flower grower does not rearrange it from one place to another in order to grow a healthy flowerpot.
For growing plants use small pots. At their bottom there must be holes for drainage, and their height is equal to the width of the neck. The most common option is plastic pots, they do not allow the root system to dry out. With the help of plastic flowerpots it is clearly visible:
- root growth;
- moisture consumption for the substrate;
- when the soil is completely dry.
And they also use clay flowerpots, preheated and moistened. Orchids are also grown in a greenhouse, hydrogel or hydroponics, like indoor plants. Hydroponics is when flowers grow in water, expanded clay in glass containers.
Phalaenopsis hybrid - monopodial orchid. A single growth point appears at the top of the shoot. Therefore, they reproduce by children, seeds or cuttings, rarely use tree division.
For Phalaenopsis, only cross-pollination is characteristic. Autogamy in a flower is almost impossible. If at home several plants are grown that bloom at the same time, then hybrid pollination is carried out.
Pollination is recommended by several plants simultaneously. This increases the chance of getting seeds. With successful pollination of even one instance, pristine flowers will not bloom for a long time.
Better pollinate several plants at once.
Flower seeds ripen from 6 to 8 months.
Growing seeds at home: At the end of the flower is a column that is carefully torn off with tweezers. The polylines are removed from it and placed in another flower. To fix the polylines they are placed on sticky walls. If you pollinate the bud successfully, then the sinus of the plant closes. Then it dries, and the stem swells. When the flower turns brown, begin to sow.
Reproduction by children
Propagated by children 2 months after the end of flowering (in late February or mid-June).
Choose an adult plant for more than 2 years, with 4 large leaves. For the process you will need:
- crushed activated carbon;
- blade or knife;
- soil from pine bark, sphagnum and perlite;
- container with drainage holes.
To start, the children are cut off with a sharp object from the peduncle, give time to dry. We treat the places of cuts with activated carbon. After the process is planted in a container with a substrate and watered along the edge. Keep the sprout at daytime - 30 ° C, in the evening - 15 ° C.
If the sprout of the baby does not appear on the peduncle, then measures are taken to stimulate the plants. To wake up the kidneys, carefully remove the scales without injuring the sleeping kidneys. After that, a little hormonal paste is applied to them or moist moss is placed over the kidneys and covered with polyethylene. The content of the hormonal mixture includes:
- 10 g of kinetin;
- 1 ml of water;
- 1 g of lanolin.
The mixture should acquire a white tint. Children are treated with hormonal drugs:
Propagation by cuttings
When propagating, carefully handle the roots. Only the healthy Phalaenopsis orchid is successfully propagated. The propagation method by cuttings is more complicated. It is done after the plant fades.
For cuttings use lateral shoots of 10-15 cm in length. They need to be separated, and the upper shoot is cut off with a sharp sterile object. Slices are treated with charcoal. After the sprout is placed in a container with a substrate.
As the soil, moist sphagnum and a small amount of moss are chosen. Temperature 25-28 ° C.
Good care will extend the life of the plant
In order to give Phalaenopsis appropriate care and extend his life, several agricultural activities are carried out.
|Watering||Watered from a watering can at the edges of the pot or by immersing the pot in a container of water. During flowering, watering is recommended from a watering can. And immerse the pot in a container of water for 30 minutes.|
Abundantly water the plant is not recommended. Watering is carried out in small doses once every 12 days, before lunch. Variegated Phalaenopsis can withstand up to 2 weeks without watering.
Water is used 2-3 ° C above room temperature. It should not have lime, salts and chlorine. If the roots of the plant turn brown, this means overflow. Also determine the dryness of the soil with your hands, placing your fingers a little deep into the ground.
|Temperature mode||The optimum temperature is from 10 to 28 ° C.|
At a temperature of 30 ° C the flowerpot provides good air circulation.
|Lighting||During the day, plants provide 12-hour lighting. In late spring and summer, the flower is protected from direct sunlight.|
For artificial light, choose a phytolamp or fluorescent lamp.
|The soil||Orchid is planted in a large pine bark. At the bottom of the container, granite stone is placed, and under the base of the flower I adjust the foam. Sprinkle on top with small pieces of pine bark.|
|Top dressing||During flowering, fertilize 2-3 times a month. At rest, it is dangerous to feed. Use specialized dressings with the signature "for orchids": "Pocon", "Kemira-Lux", "Bona Forte". Before applying fertilizer, the flowerpot must be watered.|
Spray the leaves with standing water 4 times a day. To save water from hardness, add 1 g of oxalic acid to it and stand for 3 days. If the leaves on the tree are wrinkled, then this is a sign of waterlogging or hypothermia.
When the plant has flowered and there are no buds on it, it enters the dormant phase - this is the right time for pruning. This method is also used to rejuvenate, renew a plant or if it has stopped growing. During flowering Phalaenopsis can not be cut. We update the plant in October or November
The knife, blade or pruning shears are disinfected in alcohol, and before that everything is placed in chlorinated water or boiled. The procedure is carried out with gloves.
Rejuvenation is carried out when the stem changes its color to violet-green. An exact cropping pattern is not needed. After the procedure, 1 cm remains from the stem. If there are sleeping buds on it, then 2 cm is left.
- adhere to the temperature regime - in the afternoon 24 ° C, in the evening 15 ° C;
- reduce watering;
- do not feed;
- provide diffused light;
- to shade from the direct sun.
The timing of flowering after pruning depends on the type of plant.
It is advisable to do a transplant in the spring
After planting an orchid, a second transplant is carried out after 2-3 years, when:
- the soil turned into dust and the roots crack;
- pests were found in the flowerpot;
- the roots began to rot;
- the root system has outgrown capacity;
- the stem has broken;
- plan to plant and plant a flowerpot;
- the substrate is stone.
A monopodial orchid is transplanted in the spring. The flower is taken out of the pot, the root system is separated from the substrate. Cut dead or rotten roots. Slices are treated with charcoal; it is recommended to choose a fungicide for root prophylaxis.
The transplant container is filled with drainage made of foam, expanded clay and granite stones. The old soil for transplant cannot be used. She lost all her useful properties. After planting the plants in a new pot, the ground is sprinkled with small pieces of bark on top.
After transplanting, the flower is not watered for 5 days. Within 2 months, Zircon is added to water for irrigation once every 14 days. It is bred with the expectation of 3 drops per 150 ml.
Diseases and Pests
If some conditions of cultivation or care are not met, the flower begins to hurt or pests attack. The most common pests of Phalaenopsis include:
- Thrips are black insects about 3 m that move quickly. The root and leaves are affected, leaving black dots on them.
- The scabbard leaves pimples on the stems, black plaque on the leaves.
- Mealybug is a fluffy insect of white color. Leaves begin to turn yellow and dry.
- Whitefly is a white moth. The stalk weakens, the leaves dry out and fall off.
- Ticks puncture leaves. The buds are dropping.
The Phalaenopsis orchid at home is affected by 3 species of ticks, their external differences are not significant, and the signs of damage are the same. After their stay on the flower, a light spider web film is observed.
The most common diseases:
- bacterial spotting - spots on the leaves;
- powdery mildew - a white layer of plaque;
- black mushrooms - leaves turn black;
- rot - roots and leaves darken, the flower may die.
To prevent infection of the flower with diseases, flower growers recommend wiping the leaves every 3 days, not over-moistening the substrate and not overfeeding. Causes of illness can also be both low air temperature and poor lighting.
When most diseases are affected, they observe the rules of irrigation and apply the biological drug Fitosporin. To treat powdery mildew, soot fungi begin with a solution of colloidal sulfur or with drugs:
To prevent anthracnose disease, the room where the pot is located is periodically ventilated. And the humidity in it is at least 50%.
To save the flower from bacterial spotting or rot, the affected areas are cut off, the sections are treated with activated charcoal. And they add “Fitovert” to the substrate according to the instructions. If the leaves have lost elasticity, spray with a light solution of vitriol once a month.
Against a spider mite, a mealybug, drugs are used:
For prevention, use Neem tree oil or the hot shower method. The method consists in watering about 45 ° C. Also a good remedy against pests is a solution of water and laundry soap. To dilute it, 250 g of grated soap is mixed with 7 l of water.
In case of thripsy, Phalaenopsis is sprayed at home 3 times every 10 days according to the instructions with Fitoverma or Actellika.
For the prevention of scale insects, the blooming Phalaenopsis is washed, treated with an “Actellica” solution every 7 days. To revive, he is transplanted into a new pot. If the orchid fade leaves due to pests, use the first aid method. To do this, you need glucose or sugar. The solution is sprayed on the leaves in a small amount.
An orchid is allergic, so before placing it in your home, make sure that it does not cause allergic reactions. Phalaenopsis is not toxic to humans.
Subject to the rules of planting and care, there will be no problem of obtaining a beautiful flower with a pleasant aroma. Home Phalaenopsis orchid is a symbol of grace and great love. And thanks to its color scheme, it will be easy to choose the desired color. The modern world often uses blooming Phalaenopsis as a gift.