Description of the mushroom umbrella

Mushrooms umbrellas occupied all continents except Antarctica. They are saprotrophs. They grow in free glades in the forest. Edible species can be planted in open ground or a greenhouse.

Description of the mushroom umbrella

Appearance

An umbrella fungus is a basidiomycot. It belongs to the class of agaricomycetes, is part of the agaric order, the family of champignons. Most umbrellas are part of the Macrolepiot genus.

Umbrella mushrooms are edible (2-4 category) and poisonous. To correctly distinguish between poisonous counterparts, you should familiarize yourself with the description of the main species. The fruit has a hat-cutaneous structure of the body, from small to large sizes.

The name of the fetus was due to the elongated legs. At its end there is a dome hat, which looks like an umbrella cane in the open state.

Hat

The hat reaches 10-40 cm, which depends on the variety of the fruit. The lower part is up to 38-45 cm in length. The upper is characterized by a whitish color with a splash. These are the scales that an umbrella mushroom can show when ripe. The shape of the cap varies from ovoid and hemispherical to almost flat, resembling a wide umbrella.

Regardless of the variety, the fruits have a central elevation, similar to a small mound.

The plates are often located, poorly attached to the leg. As the fetus grows, they darken, turn gray. The spores are white or cream.

Leg

The lower part of the fetus is cylindrical, sometimes even or inclined. Inside it is hollow, painted when cut. At the base there is a slight seal, similar to tubers.

The foot has a narrow or wide ring. In structure, it is film. It is easy to move. The color of the ring is white or brown. It happens in two colors: white above and dark below.

Edible species

Young fresh fruits are picked. Their benefit is that the nutrients of the mushrooms are fully absorbed, even if the fruit is dried.

They use the tops of umbrellas: they have a loose, delicate pulp with a pleasant aroma. Feet do not eat. Old, large fruits are sifted out due to stiffness.

Before use, carefully inspect the fruits for the presence of parasites. The motley umbrella is especially located to them. For disinfecting fruits for 20 minutes. soaked in salted water. After that, they are recommended to cook, dry or freeze.

A common cooking method is frying slices in batter. The fruits retain their shape, taste, do not fall apart. Some mushrooms are used in Chinese cuisine as a gourmet appearance. Useful salads and soups are made with them. Often fruits are consumed in a baked form with vegetables or meat.

Calorie content of the fetus is low. It is used in diet food.

Fruits should be frozen. Use sterile containers. Mushrooms can withstand storage no more than 3-4 months. Freezing retains beneficial properties.

White

A common soil saprotroph is a white or field fungus. Another white umbrella is called "Flower". He prefers steppes, open glades of mixed forests.

Distribution Area:

  • European part;
  • Iran;
  • Turkey;
  • Siberia;
  • Far East;
  • American continents;
  • some parts of Cuba, Sri Lanka.

The mushroom is found in groups or one at a time. Harvesting is carried out from June to 2 half of September.

Not all umbrellas are edible.

The fruit looks like a poisonous smelly fly agaric. It is distinguished by mucus on the cap. A scaly drawing is also present.

The leg is distinguished by a bag-like bedspread. It is sometimes submerged in the ground.

Hat

The fruits are distinguished by a small thickened meaty hat, which reaches 10-12 cm in diameter.

The skin color is beige and whitish. The edges of the cap are strewn with voluminous white fibers. A dark-brown tubercle is clearly distinguished in the middle. When touched, it is rough. Inside the flesh is colorless.

The plates of young fruits are bright white. Old ones have different shades of brown.

Leg

The lower part of the fetus is 7-12 cm high and 0.5-1 cm thick is characterized by a slight thickening at the base. The cut is white-gray.

Leg is smooth, yellowish from the ring down. Above is white or beige. When touched, it darkens to brown.

Elegant

The fruit is met in meadows and fields. He prefers sandy soil.

He is met in the Transcaucasus, Primorsky Territory, USA, Canada, and some African countries.

It is common in many countries of the European part of the continent, except:

  • Norway
  • Balkans;
  • The Republic of Belarus.

The fruit does not grow large. The hat is bell-shaped, light yellow in color. The stalk grows up to 13-15 cm. Its diameter is up to 2.2 cm. The lower part changes color depending on the age of the fungus: in young it is light, in mature fruits it gets dark. The leg is covered with yellow or brown flakes. The core of the mushroom has a fresh smell, good taste.

Motley

A motley umbrella is found on the territory of the countries of the American continents, Eurasia. He adapted well to the cold climate.

Variegated Mushroom - the largest and highest edible. The hat reaches 42 cm wide with a relative fineness (2-3 cm). The hat is a bright brown-red hue. The motley umbrella has frequent, well-detachable flakes.

The leg of the young fetus is completely brown. Old - becomes brown. Brown flakes appear that resemble a snake print.

A wide skirt is visible right under the hat. It darkens as it ripens.

Conrad

Cornada mushrooms are popular for harvesting for the winter

Conrad prefers a forest zone. It grows in Europe, Asia.

The hat is thinned to the edges. The shape is spherical, round, bell-shaped, similar to an umbrella. The surface of the cap is off-white. It ends, not reaching the brim. In the middle of the tubercle is black.

The leg grows to 12-15 cm, has a diameter of 0.7-1.2 cm. Its color is brown. To the base thickens.

The plates are distinguished by a white, cream tint. They are free, widely spaced.

A common cooking method is harvesting for the winter. For this:

  • the hat is cut off from the leg;
  • it is cleaned, washed well;
  • boil for 10-15 minutes;
  • cooked according to any of the recipes.

Inedible varieties

False poisonous umbrellas mushrooms contain toxic substances that are not fully understood. Inedible mushroom poisonous poisonous hallucinogenic effect. Mushroom poisoning occurs due to the content of highly toxic substances:

  • fallin;
  • phalloidin;
  • amanitine.

Fallin can be neutralized by heat treatment. Other toxic substances remain, can lead to irreversible damage and death without timely assistance.

Lepiota comb

Fruits grow in temperate forests in the north. Culture prefers the European part of the continent.

The hat is small, up to 5 cm in diameter. The shape is the same as a girl’s umbrella has. It differs in the description of the tubercle in the middle. He is small, bright red. The girl’s umbrella has a dark mound. Scales on a hat are rare, spiky. They are yellow or buffy.

The ring on the leg is pinkish in color, thin, movable. When cutting, pulp fibers are clearly visible. The smell is sharp, unpleasant.

Lepiota rough

The species is called an acutifoliate umbrella. It is found in Europe, Mexico, in northern Africa.

The hat is fleshy, fleecy, ovoid. It grows up to 14-15 cm. It has characteristic scales of a shade of rust.

These mushrooms umbrellas have legs of pale yellow color with subtle horizontal wavy brown stripes.

The wide ring has brown blotches. The taste of the pulp is bitter, unpleasant. The smell is sharp.

Chlorophyllum Lead Slag

The species grows in Australia, Europe, USA, North Africa. The fruit resembles a motley umbrella. Doubles differ in the description:

  • pink rare flakes on a hat;
  • a large top diameter - up to 35 cm;
  • the core on the cut, which becomes orange or brown;
  • lack of smell, taste;
  • green-gray plates in mature mushrooms.

Chlorophyllum dark brown

Forest false fruit is common in Hungary, USA, Croatia, Slovenia. Prefers areas with a humid marshy climate.

The brown hat of the inedible umbrella mushroom reaches a diameter of 13-14 cm. The leg changes from beige to brown-brown. At the base of the leg is a characteristic tuberous growth that grows to 5 cm.

The core of the fetus is white. A cut in the air changes color to orange red.

Conclusion

For a clear distinction between edible and dangerous mushrooms, study the relevant information. Only well-known fruits are harvested. If in doubt, the mushroom is not picked.

It is not recommended to pick fruit in a contaminated area. They accumulate heavy metals, pesticides, radionuclides. Poisonous mushrooms are best not to touch, bypass.

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