Description of different types of breasts
Lust is the most valuable forest mushroom, from which delicious delicacies are obtained. It is salted, marinated, boiled, fried, added to the filling for pies and pies. In folk medicine, these mushrooms occupy an important place, due to the beneficial composition. In the forest they find different types of mushrooms: they are unique, but not all are edible.
Description of different types of breasts
The breast looks different, depending on the species. But the family has common features.
The fungus is tubular, has a concave or funnel-shaped hat with a diameter of 6 to 12 cm, terry edge. The legs are thick, lamellar, similar in color to the hat. She becomes hollow with age. The flesh is yellowish, milk is white and caustic, creamy spores.
Mushrooms grow mainly in moist deciduous, sometimes in coniferous forests. Often they are found under a Christmas tree, poplar, birch. They are collected from beneath a foliage of foliage and needles, colonies sometimes number several dozen mushrooms. Given their large size (50–120 g), one trip to the forest brings a rich harvest. The richest mushroom areas are northern.
Rod - Mlechnik, family - Syryouzhkin. Usually lumps of real are collected and sold. The Mlecnik genus includes many other species: yellow, black, aspen, raw. Sometimes Chinese Shiitake mushrooms are considered to be of this genus, although this is not so.
Europeans consider any kind of mushroom poisonous, but in fact only false ones are really dangerous. Recycling is required before use: they are very bitter.
All the mushrooms are conditionally edible, Russian people since ancient times consider them a delicacy, utility is at a high level.
Description of species
Varieties of breasts have their own characteristics, differ in size, color, method of preparation. They prefer birch or poplar forests - they are difficult to detect.
Mushroom picking resembles a hunt: you need to go out early and carefully examine the ground under the trees, stumps. Search time comes with cool damp weather. Typically, the growth period begins in July-August and lasts until October-November.
The most delicious mushrooms are white, yellow and black. Island, fragrant and other varieties are interesting, but not so popular.
If you buy already-collected mushrooms in the store, it is important to learn to distinguish them. If in doubt, it is better to show the product to experienced mushroom pickers so that they determine if it is inedible.
It’s hard to find the mushrooms under the foliage
A real breast is also called “raw”, “white” or “wet”. This is one of the largest mushrooms in Russia, but it is difficult to find it in the forests. It grows in birch forests, under hemp and trees, often completely hiding under the palms with foliage and snuggling tightly to the ground.
The mushroom looks like a breast of this type:
- A raw breast grows a hat with a diameter of 4 to 25 cm. At first it is flat, but with age it becomes funnel-shaped, with a noticeable depression in the center. The edge is wrapped in and shaggy. Sticky and wet to the touch.
- The skin of the hat is white or yellowish in color, sometimes with a brown spot, forest litter abundantly adheres to it. The wet breast has thick legs 3-7 cm high, which become hollow by age. They are the same color as the hat, spots or pits are visible. Gymenophore - white wide plates.
- The flesh of a raw white breast is dense, white, with a fruity smell. The caustic milky juice released from it quickly turns yellow when it is in the air. The spores are yellow.
- The gray-pink milkers are also similar to wet breasts - inedible and dangerous, but their taste is sweet. They grow in the same places and have similar shapes. The main difference between the false lovers is the pink shade of the hat and legs.
Raw mushrooms are harvested in June-September. Before use, they are soaked in water with salt for 3 days. Every day, the fluid is changed. After processing, the real breast becomes suitable for use in food.
White breast looks typical for its family. Other species are similar to it, including water-zone and oak, in which the nut is yellow or yellow in color, the flesh turns pink on the cut.
Yellow breast is popular in Russia, and the collection season lasts from July to October. It grows in mixed and coniferous forests, under birch and spruce. It looks almost like white, it is prepared for use in the same way. Its other name is spruce.
- The hat reaches from 8 to 25 cm in diameter. It is funnel-shaped, its fluffy edges wrapped inward. The color is yellow, sometimes orange. Hats are sticky and slimy in rainy weather.
- Legs 4-6 cm long, cylindrical. The colors are the same as the hat, but a little lighter, with brown spots. The plates are narrow, initially cream, with age - more yellow.
- Redheads have a dense white flesh with caustic and thick milky juice. Unlike the present, yellow does not have a clear fruity aroma. The flesh tastes sharp, spicy. The spores are cream or white.
- This mushroom looks like a lump of blue or dog. He also has a yellowish hat, but the milky juice and plates have a purple hue. Another similar species is the marsh, which grows in the lowlands and has red caps.
Spruce or black mushroom is great for pickling. The picking time, according to the description, starts in August and lasts from October to November. This is done in birch groves and spruce forests. It grows in large families, in forest litter. His family is also Mlechnik, but has a unique appearance.
- The chernushka hat is large - from 8 to 20 cm, convex in youth, becomes funnel-shaped with age. The skin is dark olive or brown, slippery and sticky to the touch in wet weather.
- Legs up to 8 cm long, one color with a hat. Thin plates run down them. The pulp is white, with caustic milky juice. Cream spore powder.
- Spruce chest has a unique pungent taste and pleasant smell. It is usually salted or used fresh after soaking. After processing, this breast takes on a purple or lilac color.
A parchment pile looks like a pepper. Both species often grow nearby. The collection season falls on August-September.
- A hat with a diameter of 5 to 20 cm, an average of 10 cm. Initially flat-convex, it gradually takes the form of a funnel. The skin is smooth or wrinkled, it is white in color, but turns yellow over time.
- Leg up to 10 cm tall, with frequent yellowish plates. Narrowed down.
- The pulp is white, bitter. Parchment lumps are used only for salting, after a long soaking.
The mushroom grows in birch forests.
A fragrant type lump is considered less tasty and healthy compared to others. Under the tree, this lump forms mycorrhiza, it grows mainly in birch forests. The hunt begins in late August.
- This breast has a beige, gray-raspberry, yellowish or slightly brown hat. It is small, about 7 cm in diameter. The shape is concave, with a small tubercle in the middle. The surface is uneven, with concentric circles.
- The pulp is fragile, white, smells of coconut or fresh hay. Edible mushroom, has an unremarkable taste, so it is rarely harvested. It looks like a brown but edible lookalike.
The names of this mushroom are thawed, aspen, poplar or willow. They correspond to the place of its growth: it is often found under these trees.
- He has a white fleshy cap, which sometimes reaches a diameter of 30 cm. On average, its size ranges from 8 to 20 cm. It is depressed in the middle, and the edges of young specimens are curved and shaggy. Leg is low, dense, with rare plates.
- The pulp is sharp to taste, it smells pleasantly of fruit. White and brittle.
The mushroom is not appreciated: it is large, but it has too typical taste.
A bootstrap is an unusual mushroom. He, unlike other Syroezhkovs, does not secrete milky juice, his hat is not sticky.
- He has a white and short leg. A hat with a recess in the center, with tucked and wavy edges. The color is white, but turns yellow with age.
- The pulp is dense, with a pleasant smell.
- It grows in many forests, including mountain ones. He especially loves the banks of rivers. Appearance is similar to preload green with a greenish tint of plates.
- Before salting and drying, varieties have to be washed thoroughly and soaked for a long time.
Mushrooms are healthy foods suitable for different diets. Ice cream and saline do not lose their medicinal properties. Calorie content is low: they contain only 19 kcal per 100 g. The calorie content of pickled mushrooms is slightly higher - 26 kcal. It contains a lot of vitamins and proteins.
The benefit is that the evidence that fungi help against neurosis and depression, inflammation, and stomach problems. Useful properties are suitable for diabetics and losing weight: proteins of this breast are well absorbed by the body, it also normalizes the level of glucose in the blood.
Contraindications and harm
Even edible mushrooms of mushrooms are forbidden to eat without processing. They are first soaked for a long time or boiled and only then salted or marina. The reason is too caustic milky juice. All varieties of fungus are contraindicated in the presence of pregnant and lactating mothers, children under 7 years of age, as well as people suffering from stomach ulcers, diseases of the liver and pancreas. The product can cause harm: cause an acute allergic reaction.
Gathering mushrooms in the forest, it is easy to stumble upon poisonous ones. The camphor species is unsuitable even after soaking, it contains the same substances as the fly agaric. She has a small hat, up to 7 cm in diameter. The camphor breast looks similar to other species, but it has brown flesh, it smells like camphor or coconut, it is easy to poison it.
Mushrooms are delicious marinated
A real breast is used to create drugs against tumors and various diseases. Usually the product is salted or pickled; cooking fresh loaves is also possible.
Salting, pickling and frying
To remove the bitterness, mushrooms are pre-cooked. To do this, they are first sorted out, thrown out worms and spoiled, then carefully cleaned with a brush. They are sorted into groups: on one side they put mushrooms for drying, on the other - for pickling and pickling. They are transferred to warm water and soaked for several days, changing the water every day. The method helps to remove all the bitterness and make the products suitable for cooking.
There are several ways to pickle mushrooms. The presented methods are suitable for preparing a pile of real or white. For the hot method, about 40-50 g of coarse salt, several bay leaves and blackcurrant leaves, 2-3 dill umbrellas, a couple of garlic cloves, 10 peppercorns are taken per 1 kg of mushrooms.
- White breasts are prepared: they clean and cut off the legs, washed in running water. Small ones are left intact, and large ones are cut into several parts.
- Transfer all the mushrooms to the pan and fill with water. Allow to boil, boil for 5 minutes, removing the foam. Sometimes foods turn black and turn green after cooking. To prevent this, it is worth adding a little citric acid to the water. Another option is to boil them several times, for 15 minutes in each run. Even if they still turned black, turned green or turned gray, that's okay.
- Ready mushrooms are removed from the pan (the broth is left), washed in cold water under the tap and left in a colander so that the glass is excess moisture.
- A few spices and herbs are placed in the jar, a layer of mushrooms is tightly laid on top. Again sprinkle with spices and continue to fill the container to the end. Pour in the broth, let stand a little, clog and rearrange in a cold place.
- The mushrooms will be completely ready for use after 1.5 months of storage. This delicacy has a royal taste.
For the cold salting method, the same ingredients are used as for the hot method. All peeled mushrooms and herbs are layered in layers with salt and spices in a pan, crushed with a load from above. The capacity for a week is rearranged in a cold place, then laid out on the banks. Cold-cooked milk mushrooms are ready in a month and a half. All types of mushrooms are salted in the same way.
As a side dish, mashed potatoes or pasta are suitable for fried breast. To fry raw mushrooms with sour cream, take 1 kg of mushrooms, 2 cups of sour cream, 2 onions, salt, pepper and flour.
- Mushrooms are soaked so that bitterness is gone from raw muffins. Boil them, chop the onions finely.
- Mix flour with spices and salt, bread in it mushrooms. Heat the pan and fry the mushrooms in vegetable oil for 5 minutes. Add onions, continue cooking for some more time.
- Add sour cream, mix, cover and simmer over low heat for 15 minutes.
White mushroom mushroom and other species from its family are widely used for medicinal purposes. Milk juice is added to some medicines. Nutritional and energetic value is high, which turns raw breast into a healthy product for the body. For the best effect, you should consume 500 g of such mushrooms per week.
In salt and pickled form, they are no less useful than in fresh. They dissolve warts and tumors. To do this, they are applied to the damaged area for 10-15 minutes. several times a day. The treatment course lasts about a week.
Growing a house
Breeding is not difficult. The description of the whole process is similar to the propagation technique of other varieties. First, prepare the site in the country, then acquire the mycelium and prepare the substrate. As the last are any plant residues, straw. It is also sold in stores. We need young trees: poplar, birch or willow, good soil.
Mycelium is sown between May and September. Pre-sterilized soil is mixed with a substrate and sawdust. Near the root system of trees, they dig holes, half fill them with part of the prepared substrate, and lay the mycelium on top. Cover with the remaining mixture, spread moss collected from the terrain on which the breasts of the planted variety grow on top. The tree is regularly watered, the plot is covered from the sun. This will create conditions conducive to the growth of any breasts.
It will also be possible to grow breasts at home. For this, the substrate is mixed with crushed mycelium and laid out in large bags, cut into holes on one side. The room must be maintained at a constant temperature (not more than 21 ° C) and high humidity. Soon it will be possible to collect a bucket or two crops.
Homemade or meadow mushrooms can be pickled, salted or frozen. In the latter case, the products are first boiled, and then laid out in bags and sent to the freezer. Freezing is carried out in other ways. Before freezing, they are still fried, salted, stewed or just scalded. Frozen foods do not lose their properties, but they should not be thawed repeatedly.
The composition of tasty breasts includes many useful substances to improve the health of the body. If they dream, it brings good luck and prosperity. According to the description, a mushroom mushroom is easy to find in the forest or grow in the country. Wild mushroom is a delicacy for a regular and festive table.