Description of champignon mushrooms
Today, champignon mushrooms are on shelves in almost all grocery stores in our country. This is the most popular species that is harvested not only in the wild, but also grown on mushroom farms, and some are able to harvest on their own balcony or window sill.
Description of champignon mushrooms
General characteristics of champignons
It is difficult to mix up common champignon, which refers to saprotrophs, with any other mushroom. Small mushrooms resemble small balls of white, beige or brownish color. The hat is tightly pressed to the leg. As the pechilka (the second name of the fungus) grows, the edges of the cap extend from the stem, and its shape becomes flat-rounded or flat. This type of mushroom does not belong to large ones. The diameter of his cap varies between 5-10 cm. And only in certain varieties the diameter of the cap can exceed 10 cm. The pechilka weighs an average of 20 g. But there are specimens weighing 30-35 g. Mini-pechtsi weigh 10-12 g. Bear fruit pechliki over a long period of time.
It is interesting that champignons do not form mycorrhiza, being exclusively saprophytes.
The structure of fresh champignons is dense. Their pulp is painted in snow-white or white-yellow color. Sometimes there is a pink tint. In the place where the leg goes into the hat, there is always a ring. It can consist of 1 or 2 layers and resembles a small skirt. This variety of mushrooms is popular because of its pronounced aroma, which gives a spicy taste to even a simple dish.
Champignon ordinary loves fertile soil, grows nearby dung heaps. Preferred for it is the mountainous terrain. It is not rarely found in forests or in the steppe. Steppe species are less common than others. People learned to grow large and tasty champignon mushrooms in summer cottages. There are whole farms where peppers are grown hydroponically.
Varieties of champignons
There are several classifications:
- By the presence of rings: two-ring and single-ring champignon is isolated;
- By habitat:
- Forest soil saprophytes: forest champignon, sh. coppice.
- Soil saprophytes of open spaces devoid of vegetation: champignon bicuspid, w. double ring, or w. sidewalk, sh. half-shod.
- Herbophils (only among grass): common champignon, w. august.
- Growing in open spaces among grass and forests: field champignon, sh. elegant.
- Desert (including halophiles): Bernard champignon.
Each type of champignon has slight external differences and a special taste. There are also differences in the structure and color of the pulp.
All of the above species are edible. But inedible and poisonous champignons are found in nature, which the mushroom picker must be able to distinguish from edible. There are also double mushrooms or false champignons, which are similar in description to ordinary champignon. If you look closely, it is easy to find characteristic differences.
Common types of champignons
The most common are real or ordinary champignons, forest, field, coppice, August and dark red.
Pepperniki of this species are also called meadow. Their height is 5-7 cm. The maximum height of meadow peppers is 10 cm. This variety refers to large champignons, the hat diameter of which varies from 10 to 15 cm. In young peppers, the hat has the shape of a hemisphere, and its edges adjacent to the leg are tight wrapped inward. With age, their hats become almost flat. The diameter of the legs does not exceed 2 cm. The flesh of this variety of peppers is painted in a snow-white color. At the cut site, the flesh in the air oxidizes and acquires a delicate pinkish tint.
Look for fresh champignons of this type is better in coniferous forests. Much less commonly, forest pechilis are found in deciduous forests. They grow several tens of copies together, uniting in large groups. The cap of this champignon, on which there are small scales, looks like an egg or a bell. As they grow, their hats become almost flat. The height of the legs does not exceed 6 cm.
There are small scales on the mushroom's hat.
Forest pecheliki painted light brown. The scales have a more saturated color than the main body of the fungus. More often they are located closer to the center of the cap and less often to its edges. Inside is a white flesh. The cut point takes on a reddish hue.
Champignon species of pavement, double-ring or field, grow both in the mountains and on the plains. Field caves cannot be seen in deciduous forests. The hat initially resembles a bell with slightly curved inward edges. As the fungus grows, the hat becomes more flat, but a small tubercle remains in the central part. Two-ring champignon is painted in white or cream color. On the surface of the cap there are sometimes flakes with a silky structure and painted in white and yellow. With age, the hat changes color to ocher.
Field small cakes are appreciated for their dense and fleshy flesh and good taste. The taste of mushrooms contains anise notes. The cut small peppers acquire a yellowish tint.
The properties of field champignons are attractive, but this type of champignon must be collected carefully, as it has similarities with some poisonous species of mushrooms.
Fresh champignon mushrooms are appreciated for the anise flavor, which is preserved even after heat treatment. The coppice or thin chillies grow both in groups and singly. In young peppers, hats are shaped like an egg. Over time, they straighten and become flat-rounded or resemble a throwing disc of athletes in shape. The diameter of the caps of fresh champignons of this species does not usually exceed 10 cm.
The caps of young mushrooms are painted in a delicate cream color, which darkens over time, gradually acquiring a light brown hue. There are no scales on the hats, and the surface of the mushrooms is silky to the touch. The tender body of the mushroom when pressed changes color, acquiring a yellow tint.
This species lives next to deciduous trees. It is easy to guess the color of champignons of this species from their name. In young mushrooms, hats in shape resemble a cone with a cropped top, and under the hat plates of a delicate structure turn pink. As they grow, they acquire a flat-oval shape.
Young spring brown mushrooms may have a smooth surface on their hats. Over time, cracks appear on it, at the place of which flakes form. The legs are painted gray, which is in harmony with brown hats. The height of an adult mushroom does not exceed 10 cm.
The name of the fungus is due to the fact that the snow-white flesh instantly turns red at the cut site, an unusual smell appears.
These champignons with a white leg and a light brown hat are demanding of environmental conditions. They grow only in temperate regions. August little caves grow next to coniferous and deciduous trees; occasionally they are found in park areas. In small August mushrooms, the hat resembles a ball, which, as it grows, straightens and becomes flat-rounded. This variety of peppers usually grows in colonies. Often they are found near large anthills.
Fresh August mushrooms have a huge number of small scales on the hat, which are painted in brick color. The color of the hat itself is brown. The leg is painted white. These are large organisms: the diameter of the hat varies from 13 to 15 cm. In cooking, this variety of mushrooms is appreciated for its characteristic almond flavor, which is revealed during heat treatment.
If you cut the mushroom, the flesh will darken or become yellowish. These caverniki ripen in late summer. The fruiting period is 3 months.
Doubles and false champignons
Champignons have many poisonous doubles
Mushrooms, mortally dangerous for humans, which in appearance and structure are similar to peppers, are white fly agaric and pale grebe. Most of all they look like copepods. It is easy to recognize poisonous mushrooms among the edible ones by the shade of the pulp at the cut point. In poisonous mushrooms, it does not oxidize and retains its former color. Adult edible mushroom changes the color of the plates located on the inside of the cap. In poisonous mushrooms, it remains unchanged. The presence of a volva surrounding the swollen base of the leg of a pale grebe or white mushroom is another difference between poisonous mushrooms and peppers, in which it is absent.
Inedible varieties of peppers are reddish, or yellow-skinned and ploskoshlyapkovy champignons. An incision is made to determine that the cavern is inedible. The place of cut becomes bright yellow or orange; these colors are not characteristic of edible varieties. The mushroom also exudes a smell that is similar to the smell of medicines (they often say “pharmacy”). If the inedible fresh champignon is lowered into the water, the smell will become more pronounced, and the body of the cavernosa will turn yellow. Water will also turn yellow. If you cook an edible mushroom, then the water will slightly change color.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
For yellow champignon, or w. a redhead is characterized by the presence of a swelling at the base of the peduncle, which is not found in the edible representatives of the Champignon genus. According to the degree of toxicity, this species is classified as a moderately toxic mushroom. This means that when you eat it, you may experience a fairly serious disruption of the digestive tract. Unfortunately, the active substance of yellow-skinned champignon has not been established to date. But, despite this, w. yellow skin is used in folk medicine, due to the presence of natural antibiotics in its fruit body.
Note. When picking wild mushrooms, the mushroom picker needs to be very careful, because yellowing on the leg or cap of the yellow champignon does not appear immediately, but after a while.
Flat-mushroom champignon is another mushroom that belongs to the Champignon family and is poisonous. This is a flake mushroom with a scaly hat. Distinguishes it from edible brethren in the family a sharp unpleasant odor. Yellowing is also champignon. It is distinguished by its large size (cap diameter exceeds 15 cm). At the cut, the yellowing mushroom becomes bright yellow. Poisonous champignon, which is called variegated, is rare.
Champignon is not a tubular mushroom, unlike some poisonous varieties. On this basis, edible species are also distinguished from inedible species in the forest (among the lamellar poisonous species more than among the tubular ones).
Fresh or boiled false champignons contain the same amount of toxic substances that cause disruption of the digestive tract.
Useful properties of peppers
Cakes are rich in protein, so they can become a substitute for meat for vegetarians or during fasting. In addition to protein, they contain amino acids necessary for the normal functioning of the body, minerals and carbohydrates. Pechitiki are also popular among nutritionists. Their indicators KBJU (calorie, protein, fat and carbohydrate ratio) are as follows: calorie content is only 270 kcal per kg of product, and the glycemic index is 15 units. With such a low calorie content, peppers have a high energy value. Few foods in the calorie table have such a low rate and do not have such significant energy value.
Fresh, boiled and baked product has a low calorie content. Dried peppers contain 2-2.5 times more calories.
Peppers are also champions in the content of B vitamins. Medicine knows about the presence of antioxidant properties and folic acid necessary for women's health. Pechilniki are also rich in fiber and are useful for high cholesterol.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
In addition to the foregoing, it is necessary to indicate that the chamonions contain:
- a large amount of vitamin D 2, which prevents the development of osteoporosis;
- pyrocatechol compound (phenolic compound with a characteristic phenolic odor) having a hemostatic effect;
- Omega-6 fatty acid, which is an excellent prophylactic against atherosclerosis, improves bone nutrition and stops the development of many inflammatory processes.
By the way. A study conducted in 2009 on the occurrence and development of breast cancer, in which 2018 women participated, showed that the introduction of mushrooms into the diet stops the development of oncological processes. You can reduce the appearance of breast cancer by 90% if you regularly eat champignons and green tea.
Discussions are currently underway about the benefits of eating raw peppers. Of course, a fresh product contains much more useful substances than one that has undergone heat treatment. But the body, the cultivation of which used insecticides, will easily recover. Purchased products are better thermally processed. The taste of heat-treated peppers is much better.
During heat treatment, mushrooms should be cut, not cooked whole, this will help determine whether the body is edible. And only then it can be cooked, fried or stewed. Steamed mushrooms are delicious. fried over low heat in butter for 5-7 minutes. Cooking and stewing do not exceed 15 minutes.
The peppers are digested for a long time, which is why you should not use them at night.
Contraindications to the use of champignons
Mushrooms are not advisable for stomach ulcers.
With pancreatitis, gout and gastritis, you should refrain from eating peppers. Mushrooms are not recommended for stomach ulcers. If these diseases are not in the acute stage, then the use of mushrooms in a small amount of harm to the body will not cause. It is worth giving preference to dishes that are prepared not in vegetable oil, but in water.
Any mushrooms are an allergen, therefore, they are recommended to be consumed in moderate doses. And allergy sufferers should first find out if they have intolerance to the constituent fungi. Pechilis are also contraindicated during lactation.
Their use is also not contraindicated for diabetics. It doesn’t matter what type of diabetes is involved. Cakes are also used for cancer. If we talk about age restrictions, then mushrooms are not recommended for young children. It is better to introduce peppers in the diet of children aged 4-6 years. This is due to the fact that chitin in mushrooms is poorly absorbed by the children's body.
Features of growing peppers at home
At home, champignons turn pink in the garden within a month after planting, their growth is very fast. To grow a garden variety of champignons, you will need a place on the infield, planting material and special soil. Peppers are also grown in the basement, equipped with tanks with soil, artificial lighting and a ventilation system. When grown in the basement, the crop will be able to collect all 4 seasons.
Pechurechiki prefer to grow in greenhouses. It is difficult to get a good crop outdoors. If you grow mushrooms on open ground, then the conditions should be as close as possible to the habitat habitual for pechirniki.
Planting material and soil
At home, even large champignons can be grown. Care for the “mushroom clearing” will not take much time. Pepperiki eat substances extracted from the soil. As planting material, not seeds, but spores will be needed. You can get them from the hat (mushrooms from the supermarket will not work), but it is better to purchase a special mycelium. To obtain mushroom spores, it is necessary to choose good and not old mushroom caps, rinse them, chop them and place them in water for several days. Then strain through cheesecloth. Propagate pechilitsy obtained method of division of mycelium.
Regardless of whether peppers are grown in the garden or basement, the nutrient mixture for the mycelium should consist of manure, straw or coconut fiber and organic additives.
It is also easy to establish production on a mushroom farm. But a lot of money will be spent on its arrangement.
On a note. Varieties of mushrooms with the name "Riddle", as well as Brazilian, mini- and double-champignon, have good productivity.
Shelf life of peppers is small. Within a few days, they blacken and wither. Briefly extend the shelf life in a refrigerator or cellar. Also, these mushrooms canned for the winter. Sterilized peppers are stored for up to 24 months. Another option for the winter is frozen peppers. Mushrooms are peeled before freezing. It is also desirable to remove black plates, leaving only the white part. Then the mushrooms must be washed under running water for 5-6 minutes. There are different methods of conservation.
Dishes made from bad peppers are bitter and have a mild mushroom aroma. Просроченные и перезревшие грибочки с черными пластинками есть не стоит. Они вызывают нарушение работы пищеварительного тракта и могут спровоцировать отравление. Пропавшие печерицы на вкус горькие. Пренебречь необходимо и червивыми экземплярами. Близки к перезреванию полностью раскрывшиеся печерицы. Перед готовкой грибы следует тщательно очищать от налипшей грязи, снимать кожицу со шляпки. Маленькие по размеру грибочки чистить не обязательно, но стоит обработать их кипятком или промыть под струей горячей воды.
Для переработки подходят печерицы любого возраста, но у молодых экземпляров вкус нежнее.
В России печерицы при достаточном количестве дождей появляются уже весной. Выглядят белые грибочки весьма привлекательно. Последний урожай собирают обычно поздней осенью. Испорченные грибы с черными пластинками брать не стоит. Собирают печерицы в экологически чистых районах, подальше от проезжей части, тогда употребление этих организмов не так опасно. Если гриб на разрезе приобретает желтый цвет, его выбрасывают.
Печерицы быстро портятся. Те экземпляры, которые не идут в готовку, в ближайшее время стоит вымыть, а затем закрыть любым способом или высушить. Предварительно очищенные печерицы сушат, не добавляя в них соль и другие специи. Выбирать для консервации лучше печерицы одинаковых размеров (так они равномерно пропитаются маринадом).
Выращивая грибы в домашних условиях, за сезон с 1м2 собирают по 4-6 кг быстрого урожая, а иногда и по 10-12 кг. От сбора первого до второго урожая проходит не более 9-10 дней. За сезон при такой урожайности получится собрать около 100 кг. Получая урожай в 100 кг, грибовод в состоянии организовать небольшой бизнес и ферму.