Decorative room Euphorbia
Euphorbia is an indoor flower representing the Euphorbia family of plants. It is becoming increasingly popular in Russia. Its Latin name is Euphorbia. Euphorbia is home to the tropics and subtropics. In the wild, it grows in America (South and Central), Africa, the Canary Islands and in Arabia. In the world there are about 2000 species and subspecies of this shrub. The plant is unpretentious, it does not need much care. Euphorbia can be propagated by cuttings, seeds or dividing the bush.
General description of the plant
The Latin name of the Euphorbia plant was invented in ancient times. It comes from the name of the Roman physician Eurofob, who studied the healing properties of the plant and actively used them. The bush represents the Molochaev family.
The species of this flower are very different from each other. They can have leaflets or thorns, the stems are thin and long, faceted, spherical. Some resemble a palm tree in appearance, others look like cacti, others grow like grass. A number of species grow in the open ground: this is the usual weed grass in the country or garden. But at home tropical species are grown, they are more beautiful. These plants have a common feature: each Euphorbia has a poisonous white juice, which is secreted by a section of the trunk.
Euphorbia is grown at home relatively recently. At first glance, all its varieties are inconspicuous, many do not even bloom, do not produce seeds and propagate exclusively by cuttings. Easy care has made the plant very popular. Most often in apartments you can find such types:
- Triangular or trihedral;
- Pallas or Fisher;
Each species needs to be looked after differently, although the rules are not too different. It is important to remember that Euphorbia in the wild grows on dry, desert and semi-desert soils, as well as warm edges. This is the reason that the indoor flower does not tolerate overflow and hypothermia, but can grow quietly with very low humidity.
Euphorbia loves proper care. To learn its principles is not at all difficult. This unpretentious flower can calmly grow in public institutions, in the apartments of busy people and beginner florists. It is very important to adhere to safety rules during any manipulations, because the milk juice is poisonous.
Below are some tips on how to care for Milkweed.
The Euphorbia plant loves a lot of light, it tolerates even the direct rays of the sun, although you should not abuse such properties: if the lighting is too intense, the green bush can get burns. Especially sensitive to light Euphorbia is triangular multifaceted.
In the shade, the flower also withers, stops growing, because the flower pot is best placed on the south or southeast window sill.
In the tropics it is warm all year round, at home it is necessary to ensure the same ambient temperature. The optimum temperature in the summer is 22-27 ° С, in the winter - 14-16 ° С. Some varieties of Euphorbia flower tolerate lower temperatures, about 8-12 ° C.
There is no need to water the decorative indoor Euphorbia too often. This is a desert shrub that does not like excess moisture. In the summer, it is enough to moisten the soil once a week. Wintering can take place without any watering if the apartment is cold enough. When the temperature is between 16-18 ° C, water the plant once a month. Water for watering should not be too cold and not too warm, soft (sifted out or boiled).
Is it necessary to bring fertilizer into the ground where the Milkweed bush grows? Feeding a flower is needed, but you can not overdo it with it. Fertilizer is applied during the period of active growth and development from early March to early October. It is necessary to feed the plant 1-2 times a month.
Leaves and stems care
If the leaves are very dusty, they are wiped with a damp cloth. For fragile varieties, a thick brush that can be slightly moistened is more suitable. Dried twigs should be removed. When the apartment is very hot or the air is dry due to heating, you can spray the Euphorbia. At the same time, the soil is covered with polyethylene so that the roots are not waterlogged.
Euphorbia pruning is a mandatory procedure. Most species of this shrub can grow in height by 2-3 m. Some give ugly side shoots, the flower resembles a weed or shapeless bush. In the interior, such a plant will look completely inappropriate.
The pruning time depends on whether the variety of domestic Milkweed blossoms or not. Flowering bush must be cut in the fall, immediately after the end of the growing season. If you do this at the end of winter or early spring, there will be no flowers in the summer. If the variety does not bloom, it can be pruned both in autumn and spring. It is important to know that it is easier to form a beautiful crown during spring pruning, because many owners sometimes cut even a flowering bush at the end of February, sacrificing inflorescences for the sake of shape.
Before the procedure, prepare the following tools:
- ordinary or sickle-shaped knife;
- sterile gauze;
- crushed wood corner;
- latex gloves;
Before trimming the decorative Euphorbia, you should wear glasses and rubber gloves: poisonous juice is dangerous if it gets on the skin of your hands or eyes, there will be a burn. Many people are allergic to milky juice.
The trimmer knife should be washed well and wiped with an antiseptic. The slice is made either straight or along an oblique line. First you need to shorten the tops, then take on the side shoots. The branch is removed so as not to damage the edge of the trunk. It is desirable to carry out pruning according to a clear plan. It is better to try to imagine how the crown will look in the future. It is conditionally necessary to remove unnecessary branches and only then proceed with the practical implementation of the plan.
After trimming the branches, it is necessary to blot the juice that has stood out with a napkin. Further, the place of the cut is sprinkled with charcoal. This manipulation allows you to quickly drag out the "wound" and prevents infection.
Very soon near the cut-off area there will appear “babies” and side shoots. Over time, the extra can also be removed. The cuttings that form after trimming Euphorbia can be propagated.
We examined how to properly care for Milkweed and crop it. Now let's talk about the transplant. Doing it is allowed only during the rest period. It is possible to transplant at another time only in the exceptional case when the roots are damaged by parasites or rot, immediately after purchase.
When transplanting milkweed, it is very important to choose the right soil, because the intensity of growth and plant health largely depend on the quality of the soil. You can buy ready-made land for cacti or universal soil. Preparing the mixture is easy on your own.
Option number 1:
- sheet soil - 2 parts;
- land with humus - 3 parts;
- sand - 2 parts.
Option number 2:
- soddy soil - 1 part;
- sand - 1 part;
- peat - 1 part.
All components of the soil are thoroughly mixed and slightly moistened. It is better to allow the mixture to settle for several days so that the landing is more effective.
The milkweed pot transplant should be high. Its roots are much weaker than the crown. So that the long trunk does not outweigh and the flowerpot does not turn over, heavy stones are put on the bottom, then a layer of expanded clay is poured as drainage and one third of the pot is filled with earth.
The plant to be transplanted is carefully pulled out of the old flowerpot. The earth should be shaken off without applying much effort so as not to damage the roots. The flower is carefully transferred to a new container and sprinkled on top of the rest of the earth, slightly tamped. At the end, Euphorbia should be watered, it can be slightly fed with mineral fertilizer.
Young plants in the first 2-3 years should be replanted annually. The new pot should be 2-3 cm larger in diameter than the old one. In the future, you can transplant every 3-5 years, changing only the topsoil. A bush is transplanted unscheduledly if the root of Euphorbia begins to decay or is attacked by pests. In this case, the damaged roots are removed, and the ground is carefully removed.
Milkweed reproduction is simple: it takes root well and takes root quickly. How can this bush be propagated? There are several methods for propagating a tree:
- dividing the bushes.
For some species, any of the methods is suitable, while others recognize only the cuttings or division of the bush. Let's take a closer look at these methods.
Propagation by cuttings
Propagation by cuttings, or cuttings, is the most popular way to get a new Euphorbia bush. It is suitable for any variety. It is best to cut the bush during autumn pruning. You can cook cuttings in the spring. Preparation and landing consist of the following steps:
- cut a branch about 10 cm long (the cut should recede one centimeter from the last leaf node);
- bottom sheets are carefully removed;
- the juice is washed in a container with warm water;
- wipe the cut with a dry cloth or napkin;
- sprinkled with crushed charcoal;
- dried in the open air for 2-3 days;
- planted the stalk in a substrate consisting of equal parts sand and peat;
- watered and covered with a plastic bottle.
Keep the stem under the cap until it takes root, about 2 weeks. Then the cap is removed and after another 2-4 weeks, the Euphorbia is transplanted into a permanent pot.
Propagation by leaf cuttings
Not every euphorbia accepts propagation by leaf cuttings. For this, only the Trihedral and Belozhilkovy varieties are suitable. Here are the steps involved in planting leaf cuttings:
- pinch the green leaf gently;
- wait for the white juice to drain;
- treat the slice with a rooting stimulator (Kornevin or Epin is best suited);
- wrap the tip in mineral wool;
- dipped in a moist substrate of sand and peat;
- cover with a jar or a bottle of plastic.
Every day you need to remove the cap for a couple of hours so that the green leaf can breathe and not become moldy. Rooting ends in about a month. Since then, another 2-3 weeks keep the stalk in the substrate, but already in the open state. After the expiration of the term, you can transplant the plant into a permanent pot.
Milkweed propagation by seeds is possible only in cases when it blooms at home. The plant forms small pods in which there are small peas. To get seeds from Euphorbia without loss, ripening pods are tied with gauze. When they open, they untie the cheesecloth, take out the seeds and dry them. They can be stored in a place protected from moisture for no more than a year.
Sowing and germinating seeds look like this:
- prepare a substrate from equal parts of sand and peat;
- disinfect in the oven for 2-3 hours at a temperature of 100 ° C;
- when the soil cools, moisturize it;
- the seeds are soaked in water for a day;
- seeds are planted to a depth of 0.5 cm;
- cover the container with film and put in a bright place;
- ideal temperature for germination is 25 ° C.
The first shoots of Euphorbia appear 2-4 months after sowing. After 2 weeks, they will get stronger, and the sprouts can be transplanted into a new substrate of the same composition. After another month, the seedlings are transferred to the pot. It is easiest to grow a White-eared Euphorbia from seeds: it has excellent germination.
Reproduction by dividing the bush
Reproduction by dividing shrubs is most often carried out at Milkweed Mil. It can be planted in spring or autumn, when the growing season ends. A green flower is pulled out of the pot, the earth is gently shaken. First, divide the crown, and then the root system. If it is impossible to divide the shrub without tools, cut it with a knife. White juice is washed off with some water. Transplant the plant into a new pot with good drainage.
Proper care at home for flowers helps to avoid any problems. But it is not always possible to ensure it, because it is worth knowing the main symptoms of plant pathologies and ways to get rid of them. Euphorbia can affect diseases and pests. Here is a description of the symptoms of diseases that occur when a tree is poorly looked after:
- Lack of light. The leaves turn pale, curl, deform and fall off, the bush lags behind in growth.
- Excess of light (sunburn). The leaves or the trunk acquire a red or yellow color in one of the areas, which then turns brown. Worst of all, the bush is affected by prolonged direct exposure to the sun.
- Leaf fall. This phenomenon may be natural in some species in mid-autumn, when they fall into a dormant state. If the bush drops leaves out of season, most likely it lacks light or fresh air.
- Inadequate watering. Euphorbia all leaves turn yellow if it is not watered enough. Yellow sheets can also be a sign of deficiency or an overabundance of mineral fertilizers, primarily nitrogen.
- Sudden changes in temperature in the apartment or drafts. In this case, the flower wilts, its leaves dry, it ceases to grow, sometimes even dies.
In nature, plants with poisonous sap have few enemies. but at home pests attack the Euphorbia and it can wither. Most often, a tree is struck by such a group of insects:
- Mealybug. The leaves are covered with white spots and plaque. You can deal with the pest with the help of a soap solution, tobacco infusion, calendula flowers, garlic.
- Shield. On the leaves there are spots that have a red, yellow, bright orange or brown tint. Fighting insects with the insecticide; the use of Actar and Fitover helps well.
- Thrips. This pest leaves pale yellow or silver spots on the leaves. The fight is the same as with a scale shield.
- Aphid. Bugs appear on the plant, which can be either green or black. It helps to destroy aphid garlic, onions, hot pepper, mustard, infusion of alder cones.
- Spider mite. The lower parts of the leaves are covered with white cobwebs. To remove parasites, the leaves are wiped with an alcohol or soap solution.
- Root Worm. The pest gradually gnaws the roots, which makes the bush completely dry. Often it is detected during a transplant. To destroy the parasite, the roots are treated once with an insecticide, then they are watered with Aktar once a month. Sometimes salting of roots helps.
In order not to miss or start the disease, the Euphorbia bush is regularly inspected at home. When parasites first appear, they can be collected manually. If the Euphorbia is suffering from improper care (leaves hang, turn red, fall off, the whole bush turns yellow, withers or dries), try to correct it.
The beneficial properties of Euphorbia have long been known. It is used by both folk healers and official medicine. Plant juice, which has medicinal properties, contains:
- copper compounds and other minerals;
In modern pharmaceuticals, Euphorbia, anthelmintic drugs, drugs for simulating vomiting, treatment of poisoning, and weight loss are made from Euphorbia. In folk medicine, the healing properties of toxic juice were used to treat warts, calluses, and blood purification. With its help, skin, face were whitened and cleaned from spots with freckles in any area. Contraindications say that Euphorbia juice can cause allergies. They should not be treated on their own.
Popular beliefs speak of the benefits of growing Milkweed, astrologers are interested in it. It is believed that the plant has a very strong energy. It is able to absorb all the negative accumulated in the house. Families who keep a plant in their apartment rarely quarrel and fall apart; harmony always reigns in their relationship. Even in complex families, people start to relate to each other better. The magical properties and secret meaning of the flower is used in India to fight demons.
There is a scientific explanation for the benefits of Euphorbia. Some scientists believe that it absorbs electromagnetic waves, therefore they advise them to be planted in offices, placed near computers and other electrical appliances. If you keep a flower in the kitchen, you can get rid of unpleasant odors. Even if you do not believe in all signs and superstitions, it is worth planting a bush at home. The tree looks very beautiful, and caring for it is not at all difficult. Euphorbia is not without reason called a flower for lazy people.
It is very important to adhere to safety rules when growing a flower. It can be harmful to humans, cause allergies. Poisonous juice, falling on exposed areas of the body, burns them. Animals and young children should not be allowed to the flower so that they do not poison. Similar recommendations exist for all poisonous domestic plants, among which there is an extensive family of Euphorbiaceae.