Cutting currants in the fall - the basic rules
Currant is an unpretentious crop in care, it does not require excessive guardianship, and at the same time gives a good yield to the crop. To ensure comfortable growth, pruning should be done (preferably in autumn), thanks to this, the plant will tolerate winter and will please with an abundance of berries in the next season.
Cutting currants in the fall - the basic rules
Purpose of the procedure
Pruning a fruit tree is done for several purposes:
- Stimulation of the formation of young shoots. As a result, a rejuvenating effect is achieved by replacing old, less productive processes with new ones that are able to produce crops with full force.
- Normalization of aeration of the crown and the receipt of the required amount of light. During shaving, crowding is eliminated, and the risks of infectious diseases are minimized.
- Productivity increase. In the absence of old branches, the plant does not allow its strength to provide them, but to form and further develop the ovaries.
- Pest Prevention. With a systematic correction of green mass, the probability of damage to healthy segments by insects is minimized.
- Harvest facilitation.
- An increase in the fruiting period for up to 20 years.
Benefits of Autumn Pruning
There are many disputes about the most favorable time for pruning, due to the diversity of the Russian climate.
In the spring. The downside is the tight deadlines. They should be carried out before the formation of fresh kidneys, which is not always realistic in connection with natural conditions. Mowing during sap flow is fraught with a violation of the development cycle of the bush. But such a correction allows you to correctly assess the degree of pruning, because the branches are not hidden by foliage.
Summer. A haircut is done only in extreme cases - if necessary, eliminate the infected shoots or to stimulate fruiting by pinching the shoots with a maximum of 2 buds. However, such a procedure has more negative consequences:
- wounds remain moist for a long time, which helps to attract pathogenic bacteria;
- currants may not have enough strength to grow new shoots, so the risk of getting a weakened berry increases next season;
- young shoots do not have time to prepare for winter and die as a result.
In the fall. Cutting currants is carried out exclusively after stopping sap flow, which allows the culture to calmly transfer the procedure and enter the period of hibernation without stress. In case of uncertainty, it is allowed to incise the branch - if drops of liquid are noticeable, the date of cutting is shifted by a week.
With the correct procedure, new shoots are stimulated, which by the spring successfully replace unproductive ones. In addition to rejuvenation, this relieves the plant of parasites that can penetrate the soil before the onset of frost and subsequently harm healthy bushes.
Despite the fact that autumn is more for correcting currants, a number of other nuances should be taken into account that affect the early restoration of shrubs.
I focus on the moon, you can determine the timing of country work. Waning, 3 or 4 phases are the best periods for a haircut.
The most favorable days in 2019:
- in September - 2, 5, 7, 9;
- in October - 1, 4, 5, 10, 29, 31;
- in November - 3, 7, 8, 11, 28, 30.
Regions of growth
To determine the time of pruning currants in the autumn, it is worth considering the climatic conditions of the territory.
- Suburbs are characterized by rapid freezing of the soil. Therefore, you need to finish the event before the end of October.
- In the Leningrad region, they begin the procedure from October 15.
- Siberia is characterized by sharp jumps in temperature, which implies a more rapid preparation of plants for the onset of cold weather. The best time is the first of September.
The tool must be sanitized
There are several ways to trim, each of them has a specific purpose.
|Sanitary||It involves the elimination of all unnecessary processes - injured, dry, damaged by pests.|
It is strictly forbidden to break branches with your hands while leaving stumps in connection with the emerging threat of rot spread.
|Anti-aging||The main goal is to increase productivity. The need is due to the ability of the plant to form the largest number of berries only on processes about 3 years old.|
During the procedure, the old branches are completely cut off, pulling all the currant juices and forces to their life support
|Formative||Allows to achieve uniform fruiting and aesthetic appearance.|
One of the tasks is to prevent the growth of overgrowth beyond the already formed crown.
Held throughout the life of a culture
|Topping||Only suitable for black currant.|
It involves the removal of the upper parts by secateurs up to 5 cm long. Performed with a sanitary and anti-aging purpose
In the fall, they make sanitary and anti-aging pruning currants. They are carried out exclusively by sharpened and disinfected tools: secateurs, garden saws and scissors.
In order for the haircut to benefit the bush and allow the winter to be transferred without complications, this scheme is followed:
- They carefully examine the plant for the presence of damaged shoots and broken shoots, they are eliminated in the first place.
- The branches located on the soil surface and too long are stopped. The latter are shortened by 3-4 formed kidneys.
- Sliced segments whose age exceeds 3 years. You can determine the degree of maturity of the overgrowth by the color of the bark - over time, it becomes darker. Rejuvenation is carried out only after 5 years of shrub life. To do this, stop the old branches at the base, previously bending to the ground. In the event that a stump has been left, the risk of damaging currants with pests increases, so it is recommended to prune the ring.
- Branches that grow towards the center and thicken the crown, as well as zero shoots and the whole new growth are shorter than 15 cm are eliminated. Unproductive segments are cut completely or by 4 buds.
- They treat the wounds of trimmed bushes with garden var.
Often, beginning gardeners make a number of mistakes in caring for currants, the most common are removing the tops or mass pruning of young shoots. As a result, the plant's immunity to diseases and productivity are significantly reduced.
It is important to adhere to certain rules regarding the age of a crop:
- In the first year, the need for the event is determined by the cultivated variety. Abundantly fructiferous ones prune a maximum of 20%; lean crops should not be adjusted.
- For 2 years, 3-4 powerful segments are left, sanitary and shaping pruning is done.
- For 3-4 years, only branches requiring elimination are removed.
- Five-year-olds are sheared every season, retaining shoots of different ages in the amount of 2-3 pcs.
Pruning red and white currants
Cut red currants for 8 year growth
The haircut rules are different from those that apply to black correction. This is due to the degree of ripening and the place of formation of fruiting on the shoots.
- Anti-aging procedures are carried out not for 5, but for 6-8 years, removing old segments in the root area.
- During formation, non-fruiting branches up to 15 cm long are removed. Elimination of a 2-3 year old shoot is not necessary.
- High yields are achieved by preserving on one bush more than 15 shoots of different ages.
- Lateral segments stop at ½, radicals leave in the amount of 3 pcs.
When cultivating redcurrant, it is required to closely monitor the development of the plant and make a forming correction only if the berry plant did not give the expected results during the growing season.
Methods of forming a bush
The classical method of growing involves the formation of a standard bush type. It is suitable for beginner gardeners.
However, there are a number of more bizarre plant forms, each year gaining more and more popularity.
As a result of following this pattern, very attractive externally currant trees are obtained, especially impressive during the fruiting period:
- In the first year after planting, standard pruning is performed, while removing part of the overgrowth up to 1 outward bud.
- Six months later, all young shoots on the stem and zero shoots are eliminated.
- After 12 months, the entire growth is cut off on the main branches. The rest is shortened to 5 cm (then their size is increased to 10 cm).
- For next spring, the lateral segments are cut to 3 cm, which are further trimmed to 25. Additionally, too thick branches are removed.
A completely simple scheme recommended for use by novice agronomists, the essence of which is as follows:
- Bushes begin to be cut only from the age of 5, while removing shoots that are half-affected by diseases, injured and thickening the crown. After that, it is necessary to feed the plant with fertilizers so that it can recover faster from stress.
- A year later, all branches are cut, selecting and leaving 20 strong and fairly young segments.
- In the next season, another half of the shoots are cut down, only 10 are saved. Those copies that are 5 or more years old are completely removed. Truncated branches in injured areas are covered with garden var.
On the trellis
The method helps to improve the quality of the fruit due to the degree of yield. Despite the small number, the berries grow large and excellent in taste.
Trimming currants under the trellis is as follows:
- Immediately after planting, the lateral processes shorten to 5 cm - this allows you to switch the kidneys to a fruiting regime.
- Trim all branches on the soil surface without affecting the main trunk. If a plant has 2 or more central branches formed, choose the strongest one. Subsequently, basal and close to the ground segments are removed.
With the onset of autumn, part of the foliage still remains on the currant bushes, therefore, the spread of diseases and harmful insects should be prevented. To do this, use Bordeaux liquid in a concentration of 1% to treat the green mass of the bush. Do not neglect the cleaning of the waste left after trimming.
Additionally, the surface of the substrate in the borehole is loosened using a pitchfork or rake, departing from the base for about 20 cm. This allows the necessary amount of oxygen to enter the root system.
To achieve maximum performance when loosening, a potassium-phosphorus mixture is embedded in the soil. Also around the perimeter it is allowed to dig rotted manure at a distance of 30 cm from the plant.