Common pigeon diseases and methods for their treatment
Pigeons are susceptible to a number of diseases that can be accompanied by a wide variety of symptoms. With improper treatment, most diseases result in the death of a bird, and if it comes to infectious diseases, an epidemic can occur that will destroy more than a dozen birds. Not all diseases of pigeons can be cured on their own. But in order to determine what disease feathered pets faced, you need to know the symptoms that appear with a particular disease. Only after diagnosis can you treat birds.
The most common diseases among birds
A pigeon is a peddler of many diseases, including those dangerous to humans. Conventionally, all diseases to which birds are susceptible can be divided into:
- infectious that cause viruses or bacteria;
- fungal caused by spores of fungi;
The group of others includes ailments that are caused by inappropriate care of birds. So, for example, in case of violation of sanitary standards, parasites can appear in the house, and if the maintenance standards for pigeons are not observed, colds can develop. For humans, they are usually not dangerous, although helminths may well come into contact with humans when they come into contact with an infectious bird, so you should not engage in their treatment.
It should be remembered that many diseases that appear in birds are transmitted through air or water to humans, so when the first symptoms of malaise appear, you need to isolate the pigeons and rush to make a diagnosis in order to do the treatment. A veterinarian will be able to make a diagnosis.
We will not consider all possible diseases of pigeons, since some of them are extremely rare. Let's talk only about those diseases and methods of treatment that all pigeon breeders encounter at least once in their life.
Among all the diseases of pigeons, the most, perhaps, the most dangerous is Newcastle disease, which is also called henchworm or paramykovirus. This disease of pigeons is most common and causes its paramyxovirus infection. It is dangerous in that it ultimately leads to paralysis of birds. A small stick develops quickly enough: in just 7-9 days, the disease leads to death. This is a disease of an infectious nature, so it can be transmitted to other individuals. In order to prevent the spread of the epidemic, it is necessary to isolate the infected pigeon from healthy ones even in the early stages of the development of the disease.
Conventionally, Newcastle disease passes through 3 stages, each of which is characterized by different symptoms. At first, the pigeon's appetite disappears and feathers are ruffled. The bird practically does not depart from the drinking bowl. At this stage, you can still save other birds. They should not be in contact with a diseased bird.
The second stage is characterized by paralysis. At the same time, the pigeon does not immediately paralyze. First of all, the neck muscles fail, then the bird ceases to move its wings and legs. Ultimately paralyzes the whole body. Paralysis occurs when the virus affects the nervous system and brain. When the nervous system is damaged, internal hemorrhages begin, which leads to death.
The precursors of death are convulsions, the onset of which indicates the onset of stage 3 twigs.
Treatment and prevention
This disease of pigeons is terrible because it can not be treated. The only thing that can be done is to prevent the spread of twirls.
After isolation of the diseased pigeon, dovecote should be disinfected. Formalin is suitable for disinfection. Use a 3 percent solution. It is worth mentioning that some pigeon breeders treat vertically with piracetam. In this case, sometimes piracetam really helps. You can try to cure the twirl with phosprenyl. But phosprenil helps only in the early stages of the development of the disease. If the bird twists its head, it will not work.
Prevention against twirls involves vaccination of birds. Vaccinate monthly chicks. It is not necessary to involve specialists for this. You can independently give drugs that form immunity to pigeons in pigeons. Most often, albuvir or lacota (Lakota) is used. You can also use boron-74.
The cause of this ailment, like the previous one, is the virus. Chick viruses are more prone to this. The smallpox virus infected by the domestic virus (through water, dirty feeders) is infected. Also, infected insects can infect the disease. Today there are drugs for pigeons for this disease, but treatment must be started on time, otherwise the birds will die.
Smallpox virus is activated in spring and autumn, and the incubation period of a viral disease is about 2 weeks. The mucous membranes and skin are primarily affected. Also, birds lose their appetite, their behavior becomes lethargic. But these symptoms apply to almost all pigeon diseases.
Types of smallpox
Smallpox is of 3 types: diphtheria, smallpox, mixed. We will not understand how these types of diseases differ, but only talk about what symptoms are inherent in each type of ailment.
With the diphtheria form of smallpox, the pharynx and mucous membrane of the oral cavity are primarily affected. There are growths that are called smallpox. After the formation of smallpox begin to grow. In 10 days they reach such a size that the bird cannot close its beak. Small pox cause not only discomfort, but also pain. Gradually, they appear in the eyes and in the beak.
With the smallpox form of the disease, the eyes and neck are affected primarily, in the area of which smallpox appears. The skin near the beak is also affected. This allows you to quickly diagnose smallpox form of the disease and timely treatment. If the disease is not treated, then neoplasms appear under the wings of birds and on the legs. 14 days after the formation of smallpox, erosion appears in their place, which indicates an advanced stage of the disease. When birds provide medical care, erosion is delayed for 25-30 days.
The mixed form of the disease combines the symptoms of diphtheria and smallpox. She is most painfully tolerated by pigeons.
Treatment and prevention
They treat smallpox with medications. There is no single drug suitable for the treatment of all types of ailment. The doctor first determines which form of smallpox is caused by pigeons, having examined the place of localization of smallpox, and then prescribes treatment.
If we are talking about lesions of the skin (neck, wings, legs), then you can use a weak solution of boric acid (2%). If the beak is affected, then tetracycline antibiotics cannot be dispensed with. In addition to antibiotics, it makes sense to treat the beak with a solution of loseval, in which glucose is present. Also, veterinarians prescribe enrostin. It is not worth it yourself to treat smallpox.
As for preventive measures, they include regular disinfection of dovecote. Afraid of smallpox virus drugs, in which iodine is present. It is they who are used for disinfection. It will not be superfluous to add a weak solution of chloramine to drinking water.
In a bird that has had smallpox once, immunity is developed for this disease.
Salmonellosis, or, as it is also called, paratyphoid, is quite common. This disease causes Salmonella. Paratyphoid is dangerous in that it can appear after communicating with infected birds and in humans. Drowsiness, apathy, lack of appetite, digestive disorders - these are all symptoms of salmonellosis. Among other things, feces of a liquid consistency in an infected individual have foamy discharge of green color.
Salmonella lives in food and water. Also, a bird can become infected during contact with the feces of a sick pigeon, therefore, if sanitary standards are not followed, the risk of infection increases significantly.
Types of Paratyphoid
Salmonellosis can be intestinal or nerve. In the first type of disease, the gastrointestinal tract is first disrupted, resulting in diarrhea in birds. There is blood in the feces. As the disease develops in the birds, some joints fail, resulting in partial paralysis. The sick pigeon does not rise into the sky, because most often it is the joints on the wings that are affected. The joints of the legs are sometimes affected, and this causes the pigeon to stop rising.
With nerve paratyphoid, the nervous system is affected. The visual center suffers the most, as a result of which the pigeon begins to throw its head back, loses coordination.
Treatment and prevention
Sick birds need to be given medications. It is quite difficult to cure this disease, so treatment should be started when the first signs of paratyphoid appear. Since paratyphoid is transmitted by domestic means, infected individuals are isolated from healthy individuals. But this measure to prevent the epidemic is not enough. Urgently need to call a veterinarian who will take biological substances (feces feathered) for analysis. With advanced stages of paratyphoid pigeons are killed. You can kill the bird both at home and in the doctor’s office.
Compliance with hygienic standards in the dovecote is the best preventive measure. You also need to monitor the quality of the feed given by the feathered.
This disease is extremely difficult, and the treatment of pigeons almost always ends with their death. Trichomonas, which live in water, cause ailment. Accordingly, with the use of infected water, infection occurs. Further, the disease spreads through food, contact between sick and healthy individuals. Sick individuals spread the infection throughout the dovecot.
Lack of appetite, fever are the first symptoms of trichomoniasis. The disease affects the state of plumage. Sick individuals are tousled, their wings are down, the goiter is slightly enlarged. With the development of the disease, the bird begins to breathe heavily, it has difficulty swallowing food, which can be judged by how it eats. The pigeon during swallowing begins to press its head to the neck as much as possible. With the development of trichomoniasis, loose stools, snot, neoplasms on the mucous membrane in the oral cavity appear. In some cases, cones appear on the feathered throat, indicating damage to the esophagus.
Treatment and prevention
Trichomoniasis is treated with osarsol and Trichopolum. You can also treat the disease with metronidazole. The drugs give 2 courses of 4 days. The break between courses is 2 days. Drugs are given in small quantities along with bread. Trichomoniasis is also treated with a drug called antisalma. It is also used to treat bronchoplemia, colibacteriosis and dysentery.
Before starting treatment, you should consult a doctor who will tell you the dosage of the drug used.
This is a pigeon disease caused by tubercle bacillus. A bird can become infected with tuberculosis by domestic means. The most unpleasant in this situation is that birds can infect with this ailment not only each other, but also humans.
There are currently no drugs that can cure tuberculosis in pigeons. Yes, and identify it in the early stages is quite difficult. In some cases, symptoms begin to appear only after 3 months. And throughout this time, a sick bird infects similar individuals and people with whom it contacts.
Since the signs of pigeon disease such as tuberculosis are late, birds should be systematically checked for an ailment. If one is found, immediately you need to stop all contacts between healthy and infected individuals. In order to alleviate suffering, feathered painkillers can be given. But sooner or later, sick pigeons will have to be euthanized.
Unexplained weight loss, the appearance of neoplasms in the form of cones throughout the body (most often on the joints or around them), partial or complete paralysis - symptoms indicating the presence of tuberculosis. Also, the disease has a negative effect on the appearance of plumage, which becomes dull.
At risk are those breeds of pigeons that often come in contact with people (sports, for example).
Although it is not possible to cure tuberculosis, the risk of a disease that could cause an epidemic can be minimized. To do this, systematically carry out the pest and vaccination of birds. Lime can be scattered on the floor, which destroys the tubercle bacillus. Infectious individuals are immediately isolated.
This disease is faced by all people involved in the breeding of any bird. As a rule, even at an early age, pigeons are immune to coccidiosis. But sometimes you have to deal with the treatment of this disease. Before you begin to treat an infectious disease that affects the intestines, you need to recognize it.
Symptoms of coccidiosis are feathered apathy and excessive drowsiness, loss of appetite. As a result, the pigeon dries, rapidly losing weight. It is also worth looking at the pigeon droppings: feathered diarrhea can occur, although it does not always accompany this ailment. Sometimes the litter stays solid. Often, pigeons have cloudy eyes, sometimes partial or complete paralysis occurs.
Treatment and prevention
Coccidiosis is dangerous in that it is difficult to detect in the early stages. In the later stages, it causes great damage to the health of birds. In fact, the cause of coccidiosis is bacteria, so treatment involves the use of antibacterial drugs.
Prevention of coccidiosis - compliance with sanitary standards in the house.
In the presence of drafts in the room, pigeons can have colds. In their treatment, medications are used. But before you start treatment, you need to eliminate the cause of the onset of diseases. Feathered people can get conjunctivitis, a runny nose or a cough may appear.
Sometimes colds indicate weak immunity and a lack of vitamins in the body of birds. In this case, in addition to treatment, you need to adjust the diet of pigeons by introducing mineral fertilizers into it. In parallel, the diseased pigeon is sedimented from healthy ones, since colds are transmitted by airborne droplets.
The sick pigeon looks lethargic, can throw its head back, does not fit the feeders and drinkers. With rhinitis and sinusitis, the bird breathes with an open beak.
Found in pigeons and fungal diseases. Condidamycosis refers to one of them. Most often, a disease is detected in young animals. Adults are usually carriers of condidomycosis. An ailment appears when there is a lack of vitamins in the body and a violation of sanitary standards when breeding birds. May cause condidamycosis and weakening of the body due to prolonged use of antibiotics.
This disease of pigeons is accompanied by the following symptoms: weight loss and bloating goiter. The bird swallows food with difficulty, and an unpleasant odor emanates from the beak.
They treat the disease with antibiotics. In addition, feathered vitamin B.
Ornithosis affects the respiratory system of birds. A harmful microorganism called chlamydia causes the disease. This is an infectious disease during which pigeons develop wheezing, runny nose, eyes begin to watery, and appetite disappears. Sometimes the bird coughs, partial paralysis occurs.
Antibiotics are used to treat ornithosis. In addition to drug treatment of sick birds, dovecote disinfection is necessary.
In addition to viruses and infections, parasites can cause damage to the health of pigeons, the most dangerous of which are worms and down-eaters. Parasites appear only if hygiene standards are violated when keeping birds.
Worms affect not only the gastrointestinal tract, but also other organs: eyes, lungs, heart. Helminths are especially dangerous for young animals. Signs of the presence of parasites in the body of birds are apathy, liquid droppings, loss of appetite, vomiting, paralysis. Also, growth retardation is sometimes observed. There are several types of helminths. For their treatment, medications are used. These drugs should be given not only to get rid of helminths, but also to prevent their appearance.
Peroids are parasites that damage the feather of a bird. They are not as harmless as it might seem at first glance. In addition to feathers, these parasites feed on epithelium, damaging the upper layer of the skin, and this is fraught with the appearance of skin diseases. In addition, the bird becomes more vulnerable to a variety of infections.
For the destruction of peroids, you can use both medications and folk remedies (for example, ash baths).
In addition to worms and fluffers, they attack feathered lice and fleas, which can be eliminated with the help of the same ash baths.
City pigeons do not get bird flu, which is dangerous for humans.
Alternative methods of treatment
There are different ways to cure diseases. В домашних условиях можно использовать разнообразные травы. Но есть заболевания, которые нужно лечить медикаментозно. Их лечением должны заниматься специалисты.
При помощи народных средств можно побороть авитаминоз: достаточно в птичнике повесить ягоды рябины или черной смородины. Можно давать пернатым листья двудомной крапивы. Чтобы избавиться от глистов, дают голубям семечки тыквы либо листья вахты, а очистить желудок помогают семечки подсолнечника. Настой из аптечной ромашки хорош при простудных заболеваниях, а для нормализации работы ЖКТ готовят настои из лекарственного одуванчика.
Широко в птицеводстве используется яблочный уксус. Это натуральное вещество богато витаминами, минеральными веществами и обладает антисептическими свойствами. Яблочный уксус чаще всего добавляют к воде. На 1 л воды дают порядка 6-7 мг уксуса. Но поить уксусной водой птенцов постоянно не стоит. Достаточно несколько раз в неделю давать питомцам такой напиток.
Всем предпочитающим народные методы лечения перед использованием любого средства следует проконсультироваться у специалиста. Объединять народные методы лечения и медикаментозные препараты не стоит.
Общие профилактические меры
Многие болезни голубей в конечном счете приводят к их смерти, поэтому очень важно минимизировать риск появления любого заболевания. Профилактика болезней голубей предполагает соблюдение санитарных норм, проведение дезинфекции в голубятне, вакцинации пернатых. Делать дезинсекцию нужно не реже, чем 1 раз в 2 года.
Вакцинация пернатых — это отдельная наука. Чтобы не задумываться о том, каким болезням подвержены пернатые и как осуществлять их лечение, следует давать подопечным препараты, стимулирующие выработку антител к тем или иным инфекциям.
Также нужно следить за качеством даваемых кормов. Если речь идет о мокрых мешанках, то остатки пищи после кормления нужно убирать из кормушек. При употреблении закисшей еды у голубей возникают проблемы с работой ЖКТ, которые могут привести не только к жидкому стулу, но и к более серьезным заболеваниям.
При первых признаках недугов вводят карантин. Если болезни незаразные, то изолировать птицу не нужно. При появлении симптомов сначала следует поставить диагноз, иначе определить, заразен недуг или нет, не представляется возможным, разве что у птицы сломано крыло и неопасность подобной травмы для других особей видна невооруженным взглядом. Если птицы просто чихают или у них появилась хрипота, их следует изолировать. Лечением пернатых начинают заниматься незамедлительно. При этом нельзя забывать, что нужно любить своих голубей, и тогда их болезни вылечить будет гораздо проще.
Каждому птицеводу нужно знать про болезни голубей и их лечение. При этом самолечением заниматься не стоит. Первое, что нужно сделать еще до постановки диагноза, — изолировать больную особь. Практически все болезни, а некоторые из них не поддаются лечению, передаются воздушно-капельным и бытовым путем. В период эпидемии, которая распространится в птичнике очень быстро, спасти пернатых сложно.
Лечить голубей можно в домашних условиях, но только после осмотра врача.
Мы рассмотрели те недуги, которые встречаются чаще всего. Но существуют и менее распространенные. К примеру, иногда голубеводы сталкиваются с таким заболеванием, как стафилококкоз. Оно лечится при помощи антибиотиков и при своевременном оказании помощи не приводит к гибели птиц. Более опасен аденовирус, который в последнее время проявляется все чаще и чаще. Для его лечения используют альбувир. Это относительно новый препарат, который, однако, эффективен против многих вирусных болезнях. Также вирусны можно лечить байтрилом или ветом. Но перед использованием любого препарата, даже если это просто таблетки от глистов, нужно ознакомиться с инструкцией и поговорить с ветеринаром.