Coccidiosis treatment in chickens
Coccidiosis is a common chicken disease. It appears mainly at an early age and is associated with a weakened immune system. In 80% of cases, this leads to death. More often it is epidemic in nature, manifesting itself sharply and spreading over the entire livestock in a short period of time. It is treated with medication. As an additional measure, alternative methods are applicable.
Coccidiosis treatment in chickens
Etymology of infection
The causative agent of coccidiosis is the parasitic pathogenic unicellular bacterium Eimeria, living on foliage and in the soil.
In total, there are about 11 types of parasites that can cause an infectious disease.
Single specimens are present in the body of the bird, the infection proceeds without visible symptoms, especially in laying hens, and is not dangerous.
However, with a large accumulation and weak immunity, they lead to fatal consequences.
When pathogens enter, active reproduction and damage to the stomach and intestines occur.
The causative agent settles in the cecum and subsequently spreads to the small one. Resistant to disinfection and low temperatures. Dies with complete drought and heating of the medium.
The severity of the disease depends on the location of the bacterium, the intensity of its reproduction, the quality of metabolic processes in birds and the strength of immunity.
At risk for coccidiosis is young animals aged 2 weeks to 3 months, whose immune system is not yet sufficiently strengthened.
The life cycle of the pathogen is 4-27 days, while the stage of development is final, and individuals who have become infected in some cases recover on their own, without treatment.
Signs of infection
Symptoms of coccidiosis in chickens:
- violation and loss of appetite, refusal of any kind of food;
- frequent drinking;
- sluggish state with lingering, squeezing into a lump and closing eyes;
- diarrhea with frothy discharge and bloody clots;
- the presence of mucus in the beak;
- lack of response to irritating factors.
The most accurate diagnosis is made on the basis of laboratory studies of litter and scrapings from the intestinal mucosa, because coccidiosis is often confused with borreliosis, trichomoniasis, pullorosis due to the similarity of external symptoms.
When the first symptoms are detected, the diseased bird is transplanted into an isolated cage.
With the multiplication of pathogenic bacteria and their detrimental effect on the internal organs, chickens lose their ability to eat well, because the digestive system does not cope with the ingested food, nutrients are not absorbed.
As a result, they rapidly lose weight, the skin becomes blue due to the onset of anemia, convulsions and paralysis are noticed.
Without the timely prescription of medications, this condition of poultry is fatal.
Causes and contributing factors
The source of infection is parasites, the larvae get along with food on a free range or form when kept in cramped conditions and high humidity.
They also penetrate dirty drinking water, contaminated feed, shell, litter and droppings.
The causative agent is spread by insects and rodents, a person carries the infection with overalls and technical equipment.
Treatment should be started urgently
Treatment of coccidiosis, especially in acute form no longer than 4 days, is required immediately after the first signs of infection have been detected.
Treatment initiated in the early stages increases the likelihood of recovery for infected chickens, adult laying hens and broilers.
During treatment, the use of coccidiostatics of different groups is allowed:
- preventing the development of resistance to re-infection, applicable for birds planned for slaughter;
- aimed at the formation of immunity, suitable for breeding farms, where it is important to maintain livestock.
They often treat broiler chickens. They go to slaughter at the age of 2-3 months, therefore, they do not conduct therapy with other drugs.
The dosage of the drugs of the first group is taken as a percentage of the feed weight:
- pharmacocide - 0.0125;
- keyden stenrol - 25.0 0.05;
- regicoccin - 0.01;
- perbek - 0.05;
- chemical coat - 0.0035.
The use of funds is stopped 3-5 days before the scheduled date of slaughter.
For pedigree broiler chickens, a second group medicine is used:
- Aprolium - 0.0125% for 7-10 weeks;
- coccidiovitis - 0.1%;
- ardilon - 0.12%;
- coccidin -0.0125%;
- iramine - 0.4% for 10 days with an interval of 3 days.
In order to avoid getting used to the active substance, the drugs alternate.
Together with coccidiostatics, broad-spectrum antibiotics are prescribed. The dosage of the drug is calculated similarly, as a percentage of the feed weight:
- monensin - 0.012;
- salinomycin - 0.06.
At the first signs of an infectious disease, medications prescribed for humans are prescribed: chloramphenicol, metronidazole, erythromycin and trivit.
It is required to drink them in a course designed for 5 days (according to a certain scheme):
- Chloramphenicol 1 tablet, trivit ½ tablet per 1 liter of water;
- Erythromycin 1 tablet, trivit ½ tablet per 1 liter of water;
- Metronidazole 1 tablet, trivit ½ tablet per 1 liter of water;
- Levmecetin 1 tablet, erythromycin 1 tablet, trivit ½ tablet per 1 liter of water;
- Erythromycin 1 tablet, metronidazole 1 tablet, trivit ½ table. on 1 liter of water.
This dosage is designed for a livestock of 10 individuals.
Antibiotics are replaced with antibacterial drugs in breeding farms, where the laying hens are aimed at obtaining eggs:
- sulfadimethoxine - 0.01% in 5-day courses with interruptions of 15.20 and 35 days;
- sulfadimezin - 0.2% in 3-day courses with a break of 2 days until complete recovery.
For complex treatment, probiotics are prescribed to help restore the work of the affected intestine:
- olin - 40-100 g per 100 kg of feed, not earlier than 2 hours after taking the antibiotic;
- zoonorm - up to 5 days, the dosage is selected depending on the age of the bird.
Alternative methods of treating chicken coccidiosis are an additional measure and are based on the limb of the eimeria development cycle, suggesting that the infected individual can recover without re-infection.
Their main task is to create favorable conditions for healing and prevent the spread of infection in the stock.
- Iodine. Make a solution with a concentration of 0.01%. Drink 2 ml daily, starting from the first days of life until the age of 40 days is reached, then the dose is increased to 5 ml until the age of 60 days.
- Sulfur. Every day for 2 weeks, 2% of its weight is added to the feed.
The consequences of an infection
The danger of coccidiosis lies in a decrease in immunity to other diseases.
Due to the active reproduction of bacteria in the intestine and their violation of the integrity of the mucous membranes, colibacteriosis, clostridiosis, salmonellosis and other bacterial ailments join the disease.
When recovering, the work of the internal organs of the diseased individuals is normalized.
After treatment with drugs from the antibiotic group, meat and eggs are not suitable for use for 2 weeks after the last dose of medication.
Preventive measures are aimed primarily at increasing immunity in poultry, which is ensured by a complete diet.
An additional tool is the creation of optimal conditions of detention, excluding the entry of chicken droppings into feeders and drinking bowls.
For these purposes, preference is given to cells with mesh floors and external feeding and drinking devices.
As a prophylaxis, chopped yarrow and wormwood are added to the feed. They have healing properties and improve digestion.
Technical equipment is subject to systematic cleaning and disinfestation. Instrumentation is disinfected by firing a blowtorch.
It is much more difficult to ensure effective prevention of coccidiosis in the private sector, as chickens are more likely to be outdoors.
The livestock is given coccidiostatics (by agreement with the veterinarian) in a dosage lower than that required for the treatment of infection. At the same time, medications can be replaced with ready-made premixes, which include active therapeutic components.
Actively apply ionophores with a mild effect and having a cumulative effect:
- nicarbazine - mixed with feed per 0.5 kg per 1 ton, given throughout the entire period of young growth, stopped 5 days before slaughter;
- robenidin - 33 g per 1 ton of feed, from the moment of birth, stop 5 days before slaughter;
- zoalen - 0.125 g per kg of feed, duration - 2 months.
Huevefarma ionophores, manufactured in micro granular form and used by manufacturers in the production of premixes, are gaining great popularity.
For prevention in areas unfavorable for coccidiosis, vaccinations are made, feeding a given, but safe, number of eimeria to form immunity to the pathogen.
Inoculate chickens starting from the 9th day of life. The most popular Aviox vaccine is for oral administration through food or drink.